Chile/ 3.4 International cultural co-operation  

3.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

The National Council for Culture and the Arts, within its remit of international coordination and collaboration, contributes to the activities of the state of Chile as one of the transnational institutions working at a regional and global level. Among the primary institutions with whom there is an active participation are the following:

 The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation was formed during the United Nations conference of 1945 and is specifically dedicated to the development of an educational and cultural institution.

According to its constitution (UNESCO, 1945), the objective of UNESCO is to "contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations”.

-       Quality education and life-skills learning for all.

-       Mobilising scientific knowledge and public policies in order to achieve sustainable development.

-       To deal with emerging social and ethical challenges.

-       To protect cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue and a culture of peace.

-       To construct societies of inclusive knowledge through information sharing and communication.

At the moment UNESCO has more than 195 member states and 8 associate member states. Chile has been a member state of the organisation since 1953.

UNESCO is recognised as one of the most important organisations in terms of design and proposals of cultural policies. Among its innumerable activities,  it is important to highlight its role as a forum for discussion and dissemination of some of the most relevant documents in matters of art and culture at a global level, such as the Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies (UNESCO 1982) and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO 2003); as well as its definitions in the field of cultural and creative industries (UNESCO 2006) which are an obligatory reference point for the design of cultural policies in our country and across the world.

Chile has five sites that have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites:

-       The Rapa Nui National Park (declared in 1995).

-       The islands of Chiloé (declared in 2000).

-       The historical centre of the port of Valparaíso (declared in 2003).

-       The saltpetre mines of Humberstone and Santa Laura (declared in 2005).

-       The mining town of Sewell (declared in 2006).

It is worth mentioning that the UNESCO regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean is based in the Santiago, giving our country a strategic role in the coordination of cultural policies at a regional level. On the other hand Chile has received important consulting advice from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics for the adaptation of the UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (UNESCO, 2009), a collaborative effort which allowed the National Council for Culture and the Arts to publish a version adapted to the information needs of the Chilean cultural field in 2012 (CNCA, 2012b).

The Common Market of the South (Mercosur)

The Common Market of the South (Mercosur) is a multinational organisations created in 1991 through the adherence to the Acceptance Treaty (MERCOSUR, 1991). It has as its objectives the amplification of the dimensions of the national markets, through integration, as a fundamental condition for socially fair economic development. Its actions are based on the promotion of the efficient use of resources, the preservation of the environment, the improvement of interconnectivity, the coordination of macroeconomic policies, and the complementary nature of different sectors of the economy, base don principles of gradualness, flexibility and balance. Its primary objectives are as follows:

-       The free circulation of goods, services and productive factors between countries, through the elimination of customs and non-tariff restrictions in the circulation of merchandise, and other equivalent measures.

-       The establishment of an external common tariff and the adoption of a common commercial policy within the region related to third-party states or groups of states, and the coordination of positions within economic-commercial forums both regionally and internationally.

-       To coordinate the macroeconomic and sectorial policies between state parties: external commerce, agriculture, industrial, fiscal, monetary, exchange and capital, service, customs, transport and communication and other sectors that should coordinate in order to ensure adequate conditions of competitivity among the state parties.

-       The compromise of state parties to harmonise their legislation in the relevant areas, so as to ensure a strengthening of the process of integration.

At the moment of its formation MERCOSUR was made up of the Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Later Venezuela joined (2006) and then Bolivia (2012). Additionally, it also has associated member states: Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Guyana, Surinam and Chile, Our country has since 1996 been part of the Agreement of Economic Complementation Agreement (MERCOSUR, 1996), and became a associate member state in 1998, through the subscription to the Ushuaia Protocol (MERCOSUR, 1998a), meaning that Chile participates in meetings and agreements.

On the basis of the recognition of the importance of culture in matters of regional integration, MERCOSUR has developed the important task of coordinating in matters of culture and the arts between its member states, a process that began with the First Meeting of the Secretaries of Culture and the Cultural Authorities of MERCOSUR, held in brazil in 1992 with the aim of examining the mechanisms and means through which the process of periodic consultations related to coordination and integration of cultural policies, could take place (MERCOSUR, 1992). In this meeting the three main areas of work were established as follows: 

-       To make compatible the national legislations in order to facilitate the circulation of cultural goods and services in the region.

-       To ensure adequate internal legislation to incentivise culture.

-       To support the use of mass media communication to drive the culture of member states as a means of integration.

In 1995 the First and Second Specialised Meetings of Culture (MERCOSUR, 1995a and 1995b) were held. At these meetings the project for the Protocol for Cultural Integration was elaborated, the Meetings of Ministers of Culture (RMC) were called for the organisations to replace the Specialised Meetings, and tax relief for commodities of cultural use was imposed, an articulating structure was established with the areas of environment and tourism, the promotion of private investment was called for, and the term MERCOSUR Culture began to be used to refer to the activities of cultural integration in the organisation (especially directed at promoting the economic interchange of cultural goods and services with the MERCOSUR Culture label), among numerous other initiatives. Chile has participated in the process as an observer in the important Meetings of the Ministers of Culture.

As a corollary to the occasions of the meetings mentioned above, in 1996 the Protocol of Cultural Integration of MERCOSUR (MERCOSUR 1996) was approved, and this is considered the fundamental framework for MERCOSUR Culture (MERCOSUR, 2006). Among the many proposals in the documents the member and associate member states committed to the following:

-       To promote the cooperation between its institutions and cultural agents, elaborating programmes and projects with the aim of enriching and disseminating cultural and artistic expression of the MERCOSUR countries.

-       To facilitate the creation of cultural spaces and the coproduction through historical traditions, common values, and the diversity of member states, through exchange programmes for artists, writers, researchers and individuals working in the private or public sphere.

-       To encourage the production of cinema, video, television, radio and multi-media in a regime of coproduction and co-distribution.

-       To promote the common formation of human resources involved in the cultural sphere, prioritising the exchange of cultural agents and managers.

-       To promote the investigation of common historical and cultural subjects, including contemporary aspects from the cultural life of the citizens, in order toe contribute to the definition of common cultural initiatives.

-       To encourage the cooperation between historical archives, libraries, museums and institutions responsible for the preservation of cultural heritage with the aim of harmonising work ethics.

-       To use a common computerised data base which includes the calendars of cultural activities and information on human resources and available infrastructure.

-       To protect copy right of works originating from the states according to their internal legislation and valid international agreements.

-       To encourage the organisation and production of cultural activities together in order to better promote them in third-party states.

-       To commit to efforts so that the cultural cooperation can cover all the regions of the respective states.

-       To promote and make known cultural commodities and manifestations of MERCOSUR through the media. 

Twelve years after the ratification of the Protocol of Cultural Integration, MERCOSUR approved the Declaration of Cultural Integration of MERCOSUR (MERCOSUR, 2008a) in which in twenty-seven proposals it develops and goes into greater details the aforementioned objectives, incorporating elements such as technical support and back up of projects, the promotion of technical collaboration among international bodies, the search for international public and private financing, the articulation with civil society, the registering and valuing of monuments and manifestations of heritage worth, and the affirmation of the collective memory, among other elements.

In the 1998 Meeting of the Ministers of Culture (MERCOSUR, 1998b), the figure of MERCOSUR Culture was enhanced through its presence at international meetings, launching its customs label, presenting its projects and the groupings of artists to other countries and international cultural bodies. Through the means of the mechanisms previously mentioned, as well as many other, MERCOSUR Culture is established as a political entity through the Meetings of the Ministers of Culture; and as a technical entity through the General Coordinating Committee and the Technical Commissions, formed in order to discuss various matters (Pallini, 2001). Additionally, there are other organisations related to MERCOSUR which deal with cultural matters, such as the Specialised Meeting of Cinematography and Audio-visual Experts (RECAM), for in 2003 (MERCOSUR, 2003b), the Commission for Cultural Heritage, the Technical Meetings about Cultural Diversity, and the Technical Meetings of the Cultural Industries, among others. MERCOSUR Culture also supports the production of various initiatives among member states, and develops specific programmes such as the MERCOSUR Culture Label and the MERCOSUR Culture Fund. Since 2010, the technical Secretary of MERCUSOR Culture has its headquarters in Argentina (MERCOSUR, 2010).

The participation of Chile in MERCOSUR Culture has largely been as an observer and an associate member state, taking on management tasks or elaborating projects such as the Regional Technical Seminar on Social Rights of Artists (2002), a study of workers of the cultural sector (through the support of the Andrés Bello Convention; CNCA, 200$), and other initiatives lines to the study of the impact of cultural industries, such as the Satellite Account of Culture, whose activities were also developed in conjunction with the Andrés Bello Convention. The connection between the actions of MERCOSUR Culture and the Andrés Bello Convention has played a key role in establishing lines of work related to the nexus of the economy and culture, an area that is in permanent development in the cultural policies of Chile.

Through the nexus with MERCOSUR Culture, our country participates in the treaties and cultural definitions with other bodies such as the Organisation of the Iber-American States for Education, Science and Culture (MERCOSUR, 200b), the Latin American Association for Copyright (OMPI), the Organisation of the American States (OEA) (MERCOSUR, 2003a), and UNESCO (MERCOSUR, 1997), among other organisations. In effect, and as an example, it is through the coordination of the MERCOSUR Culture label that the preparation and ratification of the International Convention for the Diversity of Culture (MERCOSUR, 2003) was established on the basis of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Heritage (UNESCO, 2001).

Information system of the MERCOSUR Culture (SICSUR)

It is worth highlighting the active collaboration of Chile in the Information system of the MERCOSUR Culture (SICSUR). The creation of this body was approved in 2008 (MERCOSUR, 2008c), and in 2009 it was incorporated in the programme of MERCOSUR Culture (MERCOSUR, 2009). Its Technical Secretary is based in Argentina (MERCOSUR, 2010). SICSUR is the integrated information system for member and associate member states, and ensures a process of the analysis, processing and dissemination of cultural indicators and data, administered to this end by a website (www.sicsur.org), generating regular publications in the area of cultural statistics, external trade, legislation, cultural institutionality and other spheres.

Its objective is the construction of a consistent panorama for the cultural development of the region through the qualitative and quantitative study of the cultural economy as much referring to the cultural industries as to material and intangible heritage, the cultures of indigenous peoples, the migratory patterns, among other elements. In the way SICSUR contributes to the improvement of the designs of cultural policies; it is a source of information for researchers, students, cultural managers and the general public; and it promotes the dialogue between public bodies, companies and social and cultural organisations.

SICSUR develops its activities around the following streams of work:

a.        The continuous generation of statistics and cultural indicators.

b.        The production of a cultural map of the region.

c.        The analysis of different aspects of the cultural institutionality of member states.

d.        The dissemination and sponsorship of studies and investigation about the subject.

Chile takes part in this process by providing information, exchanging methodologies, and committing to the elaboration of studies. In particular it is worth mentioning the presence in our country of the Seminars on Systems of Cultural Information that SICSU has been producing regularly since 2006. Additionally, there is permanent coordination with the Department of Studies of the National Council for Culture and the Arts, which has facilitated for SICSUR the use of information relevant to the development of the creative and cultural industries and has collaborated through the study Los Estados de la Cultura. Estudio sobre la institucionalidad cultural pública de los países del SICSUR (CNCA, 2012a) (“The States of Culture. A Study on the Public Cultural Institutionality in the SICSUR Countries”).

Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the South American Council of Culture (CSC)

The Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) is an international organisations formed in 2008 as an advisory body to the South American Community of Nations, which in turn was formed in 2004 with the aim of integrating the nations of MERCOSUR and the Andean Community (CAN). The member states of the UNASUR are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Chile, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.

UNASUR was formed with the intention of aiding regional integration in terms of energy, education, health, environment, infrastructure, security and democracy. As its aim it has the sustained regional development of its member states, recognising their regional objectives, social strengths and energy resources. The activities of UNASUR seek to construct a regional identity based on a shared common history under principles such as multilateralism, the applicability of international law and the respect of human rights and democratic processes. recognising the cultural diversity of the member states, its official languages are Spanish, English, Portuguese and Dutch. 

The Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, 2008), the founding treaty of UNASUR, was approved through an extraordinary meeting of within the frame for the Meetings of the Presidents of South America, held in the town of Brasilia. The document defines as the general objective of the organisation:

 “building a participatory and consensual forum for dialogue on strengthening cultural, social, economic and political integration and undertaking joint infrastructure development in South America. UNASUR offers the member States a platform for jointly addressing development challenges and pursuing socioeconomic inequality, social inclusion, citizen participation and the strengthening of democracy.

Among the numerous specific objectives of UNASUR are the following:

-       To strengthen the dialogue between member states ensuring a discussion forum to reinforce South American integration and the participation of UNASUR on the world stage.

-       A fair and inclusive process of social and human development to eradicate poverty and overcome the inequalities in the region.

-       The eradication of illiteracy and ensure universal access to education of quality.

-       Energy integration to ensure a better integrated, sustainable and solidary use of energy resources in the region.

-       The development of infrastructure to ensure inter-connection within the region.

-       Financial integration compatible with the policies of the member states.

-       The protection of the biodiversity,, water rights and ecosystems.

-       The consolidation of a South American identity through the progressive recognition of the rights shared by all the citizens in the member states.

-       Cooperation in terms of migration in terms of respect of human rights and labour laws.

-       Universal access to social security and health services.

-       The promotion of cultural diversity and the expressions of common memory and knowledge and wisdom of the peoples of the region in order to strengthen their sense of identity.

In 2009 the formation of the Sectoral Councils was accomplished. They are dedicated to the achievement of diverse objectives of the international body. Among these councils are the South American Councils against Narco- Trafficking, that of Infrastructure and Planning, that of Social Development and Educatio, Culture, Science, Technology and Innovation.

In November 2002 the Council of leads of States and Governments of UNASUR recognised the formation of the South American Council of Culture (CSC) whose  first meeting took place on the 25th June 2013 and among whose participants were representatives from the National Council for Culture and the Arts of our country (UNASUR, 2013a).

In this meeting the ministers of culture of the member states of UNASUR reaffirmed the importance for the formation go democratic and fair societies, the exercising of cultural rights, understood as free access to culture, and material and intangible cultural heritage as the depositary of the memory and identities of the region, and they showed their interest in areas such as the defence of the rights of indigenous peoples, and peoples of African descent, the support of cultural industries and the creative economy (UNASUR, 2012). In accordance with the above, the thematic axes of the meetings of the South American Council of Culture are the following:

-       Interculturality.

-       Cultural industries and creative economies.

-       Defence of cultural heritage.

-       Communication and culture.

-       Arts.

In accordance with its statues, the South American Council of Culture (UNASUR, 2013b) has the following principles:

-       The creation and universal access to culture.

-       Regional integration, dialogue and cooperation and exchanges.

-       Inclusivity and the promotion of the rights of people and collectives to equal access to culture.

-       Equality in the cultural sphere, respecting gender equality and the equality among groups.

-       Interculturality and cultural diversity on an individual and collective basis.

-       Transparency and communication of the process of decision making.

-       The public participation in the public decisions about culture.

-       Cooperation in the undertaking of cultural projects.

-       Communication for the dissemination of culture and as a form of creation and transformation.

Among the objectives of the CSC it is important to highlight the following:

-       To encourage and strengthen cultural cooperation in the region.

-       To recognise and promote the value of culture as a basis through which to encourage development and the suppression of poverty and inequality.

-       To promote the reduction of regional and sub-regional inequalities in terms of the promotion of and universal access to culture.

-       To improve the institutions and spaces for cultural manifestations.

-       To encourage the creation of networks for the exchange of best practice and cultural expression.

-       To promote the recognition , valorisation, protection, safeguarding and social appropriation of natural and cultural heritage, be it material or intangible.

-       To develop the sense of South American citizen identity on the basis of interculturality.

-       To promote policies, programmes and activities that facilitate the development of creative industries, such as the circulation of cultural goods and services.

-       To encourage the unrestricted access to the creation, to the use and enjoyment of culture, without discrimination.

-       To promote the recognition of the work of social and public and private institutional agents working in the development of culture.

-       To promote and protect cultural diversity, the expression of memory, the traditional knowledge and wisdom of the indigenous peoples of the region.

-       To promote the generation of cultural content and sotries in various media forms.

Andrés Bello Convention (CAB)

The Andrés Bello Convention on Educational, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Integration is an international body formed in 1970 through the Treaty of Bogota which would later be revised in Madrid during 1990 (The Andrés Bello Convention, 1990). The member states of the Andrés Bello Convention are Bolivia, Columbia, Cuba, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Currently Argentina is in the process of entering.

The Andrés Bello Convention has as its mission the strengthening of the processes of integration and the configuration of a common cultural space, especially in areas of culture, education, science and technology, thereby contributing to a fair, sustainable and democratic development of its member states. The objectives of the Andrés Bello Convention are as follows:

-       To stimulate reciprocal understanding the friendship between the member states.

-       To contribute to achievement of a fair process of development of education, technology and culture.

-       To undertake efforts in favour of education, science, technology and culture, culture in order to accomplish integral development in its member states.

-       To apply science and technology to raising the life style in the lives of the peoples of the member states.

In terms of culture its principle actions are focused on the development of plans, programmes and projects and integrated activities that are related to the defence of cultural heritage, to the encouragement of culture in the member states, and in the incentivisation of the dissemination of literary and scientific values among the member states. These activities also extend to the area of research, experimentation and innovation in the field. In order to achieve these objectives the Andrés Bello Convention counts on, as well as its managing bodies, technical commissions specialised in education, science, technology and culture. Additionally, it works with the International Institute of Integration (III), the Iber-American Institute of  Natural and Cultural Heritage (INPAC).

The Andrés Bello Convention organises its activities related to the field of culture with its Cultural Branch, which has as its objective to strengthen the use of common space for culture in member states, through the development of research, the training of cultural agents and the valuing of the symbolic nature of cultural creation. The Cultural Branch develops initiatives such as the programmes of Culture and Development, the Andrés Bello Network of School Libraries, the We are Heritage Programme, the Imagined Cities Programme, among other activities.

Among its most outstanding activities is the formation of a programme of Culture and Economy in 1999, which sought to produce reliable information made available in order to construct a conjoined panorama, contributing to the public cultural policies. Additionally, in conjunction with the programme of Culture and Development the Andrés Bello Convention has developed tools and collaborated with initiatives directed towards the production of Satellite Accounts of Culture (Andrés Bello Convention, and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development, 2009). The line of work is centred on the relationship between culture and economy, and has been adopted by Chile through initiatives of investigation dedicated to a better diagnosis of employment in the cultural sector (CNCA, 2004) and the permanent construction of Satellite Account of Culture (CNCA, 2007a).

During 2013, and after a brief period of inactivity, the Andrés Bello Convention launched its Strategic Plan 2013-2016 (Andrés Bello Convention, 2013) in which it outlined four programmatic lines of action leaning towards the promotion of a democratic citizenship. 

1.         The education sector and the construction of citizenship.

2.         The social appropriation of knowledge and wisdom and the construction of citizenship.

3.         Sustainable development, climate change and the construction of citizenship.

4.         Education, cultural, scientific and technological policies and the construction of citizenship.

In relation to the sphere of culture and the arts the document proposed a dialogue of sharing knowledge, and exchanging traditional and scientific knowledge, the creation and recognition of interculturality, the defence of the identity and cultural diversity, as well as the promotion of cultural rights. In a second instance the document recognises the importance of the creators, the interpreters, the executors and the recreational consumer in the society of understanding, making dynamic the chains of value through the process of the appropriation of culture. Finally, it proposes the re-adoption of the valuing of the social and symbolic function of the creative expression, making visible the potential of cultural goods and services in the process of the formation of the citizenship, and the positioning of the region on the international stage, and the accumulation of cultural and social capital.

Considering the programmatic lines of the public policies in education, culture, science and technology, the Strategic Plan for 2013-2016 proposes and elaboration of the qualitative and quantitative studies in the valuing of the cultural goods and services, as well as the promotion of comparative studies in order to structure higher and further education.

The Iber-American Conference and the General Iber-American Secretariat (SEGIB)

The Iber-American Conference is an organisation that was formed in 1991 in the frame of the realisation of the First Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government (The Iber-American Conference, 1991), which took place in Guadalajara. Its work is articulated in the function of three streams of work:

a.         The validation of international law.

b.         Economic and social development.

c.         Education and culture.

The Iber-American Conference recognises that the international cooperation between member states is founded on the diversity of national cultures. On this basis, and in terms of education and culture, the objectives of the Iber-American Conference are as follows:

-       To identify the areas of education within each country that present comparable positives, that could be applied across the Iber-American region to the individual countries or in conjunction, and, in order to priority, to design specific programmes of cooperation, either at a bi-lateral or multi-lateral level.

-       To promote a common market of knowledge as a space for knowledge, arts and culture, liberalising the exchange of cultural, teaching or educational material facilitating the exchange and provision of scientific and technological equipment, and creating incentives for the communication and transmission of knowledge.

-       To encourage Iber-American conferences of experts in the diverse areas of thinking and cultural creation. The invite each country in the region to found an Iber-American library as a standard bearer of the culture, and the essence of the region’s common identity.

-       To strengthen links between Iber-American further education institutions.

-       To widen programmes of cultural exchange and scholarships.

-       To encourage the use of systems of satellite communication already existing in the region, in order to contribute to a better link between the Iber-American countries.

The General Iber-American Secretariat (SEGIB) was formed in 2003 as the result of talks at the Thirteenth Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government (The Iber-American Conference, 2003). The formation of the SEGIB brings together indications from the Havana Protocol

(Iber-American Conference 1999), a document that proposes the strengthening of the institutional framework for the cooperation within Iber-America and the development of basic elements for the conformation of the Secretariat.

The SEGIB is the permanent body of institutional and technical support for the Iber-American Conference and the Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government, and its seat is in Madrid. The statues of the SEGIB (SEGIB, 2004) establish, among other elements, the following functions:

-       To contribute to the strengthening and cohesion of the Iber-American Community and the development of international reach.

-       To collaborate in the preparation of the Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government.

-       To strengthen the work developed in terms of cooperation within the frame of the Iber-American Conference.

-       To promote historical, cultural, social and economic links between the Iber-American countries, recognising and valuing the diversity of its peoples.

-       To execute the mandates received from the Summits and Meetings of the Iber-American Ministers for Foreign Affairs.

-       To coordinate the various initiatives of the Iber-American Conference with other Iber-American organisations.

-       To present proposals of programmes, projects and initiatives of cooperation at the meetings of those Responsible for Iber-American Cooperation.

-       To collaborate with member states in the design and execution of programmes, projects and initiatives of cooperation at an Iber-American level, such as ensuring the follow-up and evaluation of these projects.

In programmatic material, the SEGIB runs 23 programmes of Iber-American cooperation, one Iber-American initiative and six other projects adhering to the Iber-American Summit, put forward by social organisations in the region. The Iber-American programmes deal with issues such as illiteracy, science and technology, innovation, urban development, and the promotion of cinema and the arts in the region.

Below are brief descriptions of the programmes of Iber-American cooperation relating specifically to the support of the arts and culture, in which Chile participates. Among them, the national counterpart of the programmes are the National Council for Culture and the Arts, the Council for Archives, Libraries and Museums:

The Programme of Support in the Development of Iber-American Archives ADAI, IBERARCHIVOS. The programme IBERARCHIVOS goes back to the initiative presented at the seventh Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government of 1997 on Isla Margarita. Its general objective is to propel the development of archive work in Iber-American, in order to improve the conservation of document heritage, encouraging the diffusion of and universal access to the material (SEGIB, 2006b). Among its specific objectives are the following:

-       To promote activities of conservation of the documental heritage, to ensure damage prevention and restoration, including research into techniques of conservation.

-       To encourage the dissemination of Iber-American documental heritage.

-       To promote training in the field of professional Iber-American archivists.

-       To support the work of the archives and other institutions in the defence of documental heritage.

-       To collaborate in developing a better knowledge of a common Iber-American history, through the rescue of unknown or inaccessible material, contributing to its being made open to the public.

-       To contribute the the creation of a greater understanding of the importance of documental heritage.

Programme of Development in Support of the Construction of an Iber-American Stage (IBERSCENA). This was approved at the sixteenth Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government in Montevideo in 2006, and was designed on the basis of the experience of IBERMEDIA. Its general objectives as a programme are to encourage the presence of and the knowledge about the diversity of Iber-American cultural in the scenic arts, stimulating the formation of new theatre-going public in the region and widening the market of work for professionals in the scenic arts. (SEGIB, 2006a). Its objectives are:

-       To support the formation of new theatre-going public in the region for Iber-American pieces, with a particular emphasis on the young and groups from vulnerable social situations.

-       To encourage the distribution, circulation and promotion of Iber-American work in the member states.

-       To support national and international theatres and theatre festivals in Iber-America in which the programmes for the region are prioritised.

-       To incentivise the theatre productions and co-productions among public and / or private promoters of the Iber-American theatre.

-       To promote education in the field of production and theatre management.

-       To promote the dissemination and production of works by Iber-American authors.

-       To support theatre productions among indigenous populations and peoples of African descent, with the aim of promoting the valorisation of cultural diversity and wealth present in the theatre of all the peoples of the region.

-       To incentivise the development of authorship and theatrical production from the perspective of gender. 

The Iber-American Programme of Public Libraries (IBERBIBLIOTECAS). The programme IBERBIBLIOTECAS was formed at the first Iber-American meetings of National Representatives of Public Libraries, held during 1998. This meeting was held with the cooperation of the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI) and the Regional Centre for the Development of Books in Latin America and the Caribbean (CERLALC). Its general objective is to promote free access to books, reading and information for all citizens without any discrimination, through the formation of an Iber-American network of cooperation in terms of public libraries which allows for synergy to be generated and resources to be optimised in a platform of common benefit (SEGIB, 2011). Its specific objectives are:

-       To promote the creation, consolidation, modernisation and development of public libraries.

-       To organise information to meet the needs or interests of different sectors of the population.

-       To define initiatives of cooperation between the different bodies responsible in the public libraries.

IBERMUSEUMS Programme. This was formed at the eighteenth Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government held in 2008 in El Salvador. Its principle objective in the promotion of integration, consolidation, modernisation, qualification and development of the Iber-American museum (SEGIB, 2008). Its specific objectives are the following.

-       To promote and disseminate Iber-American culture.

-       To incentivise the creation of public policies for the museological field.

-       To establish mechanisms of exchange, information sharing and dissemination between museums.

-       To promote the training and formation of professionals in the technical and management areas.

-       To encourage the circulation of exhibitions and shows in the countries adhering to the programme.

-       To establish mechanisms for the widening of the educative capacities of the museums.

-       To stimulate the rights to memory of the various ethnic groups and of the genders, groups and social movements, supporting actions of social appropriation of the heritage and the valorisation of the different types of museums.

IBERMUSIC Programme. This is a multi-lateral project approved by the Iber-American Council of Culture held in 2010 in Medellín. It is aimed at encouraging the development of music in the fields of academic and traditional music, as well as other types of music in the Iber-American region, and is related to the circulation, professionalisation and dissemination of the creators, interpreters, researchers and managers of the field in the region. The participation of the National Council for Culture and the Arts was fundamental in the design of the initiative, contributing to discussions and technical proposals for its formation. Its general objective is to encourage the presence and the understanding of the cultural diversity of Iber-American in the sphere of music, stimulating the formation of new music-attending public in the region and widening the market of work for professionals in the field (SEGIB, 2012). Among its specific objectives are the following:

-       To support the formation of new public for Iber-American music, with a with a particular emphasis on the young and groups from vulnerable social situations.

-        To encourage the distribution, circulation and promotion of Iber-American work in the member states.

-       To incentivise the theatre productions and co-productions among public and / or private promoters of the Iber-American theatre.

-       To promote musical creation and musical residencies.

-       To promote training and education in the field of production and the management of music.

-       To promote musical editions, the publishing of musical scores and to contribute to the discography of the region.

-       To promote the dissemination and production of the works of Iber-American composers.

-       To promote the valorisation of the cultural diversity and wealth present in the Iber-American music, incorporating the perspective of gender and ethnicity, in particular supporting the musical creation of indigenous peoples and African descendents.

IBER YOUTH ORCHESTRAS PROGRAMME. Formed at the eighteenth Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government held in 2008 in El Salvador. Its general objectives are:

-       To disseminate among boys, girls, adolescents and young people the orchestral practice as a valuable tool for the social integration of the most disadvantaged sectors of society.

-       To encourage the presence of an understanding of the cultural diversity of the Iber-American region in terms of music, stimulating the formation of new publics throughout the region and widening the work possibilities of the future professionals in the field of music.

Its specific objectives are the following:

-       To develop in the Iber-American nations the creation of the Systemic Orchestras and Choral Groups that promote the inclusive participation and show-casing of young people from disadvantaged background.

-       To widen the market of work open to young professionals in the sphere of music.

-       To strengthen, through orchestral and choral integration, the rehabilitation and rescue of young people and children of disadvantaged backgrounds, with the practice of using the orchestras as a tool in the prevention of and fight against drugs, violence and delinquency.

-       To enable the movement of instrumental players, professionals, soloists and directors within the Iber-American region.

-       To contribute the dissemination of the Iber-American musical repertory, both contemporary and historical, through its interpretation in concerts, publications and recordings etc.

Programme in Support of the Creation of an Iber-American Aduio-Visual Space (IBERMEDIA). Its formation was thanks to the experience of the Iber-American Convention on Cinematographic Integration attended by members of the Conference of Cinematographic Authorities of Iber-America (CACI), in which it was suggested that a multi-lateral financing fund should be established in order to develop the audio-visual sector. The IBERMEDIA programme was formed in the frame of the sixth Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government held in 1996 in Viña del Mar, and was operative as of 1998. Its principle objectives are:

-       To stimulate the coproduction of films for cinema and television, as well as the initial development of cinematographic projects.

-       To train professionals capable of dealing with the growth that the audio-visual industry, that is highly competitive and situated in a global market, will experience in the coming years.

The IBERMEDIA programme covers the areas of development, coproduction and training, and has specific objectives for each of these:

Development:

-       To contribute to the making of films and audio-visual projects directed by the market, especially the Iber-American market.

-       To create a favourable context for the integration into networks of the Iber-American production companies.

Co-production:

-       To promote, through technical assistance and financing, the coproduction of projects presented by independent producers from the Iber-American region.

-       To help companies capable undertaking such projects.

-       To encourage the integration into networks that facilitate coproduction.

-       To work on making the maximum benefit out of Iber-American audio-visual heritage.

Training:

-       To encourage the further education of professional of production and management of audio-visual companies.

-       To promote the use of development of new technologies.

-       To contribute to the cooperation and exchange of knowledge.

The Organisation of Iber-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI) 

The Organisation of Iber-American States for education, Science and Culture (OEI) is an international organisation of a governmental nature that deals with the cooperation between Iber-American states in the field of education, science, technology and culture within the context of integral development, democracy and the integral integration. The member states are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Spain, Guatemala, Equatorial Guinea, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Uruguay and Venezuela. Its General Secretariat is in Madrid and its has regional offices in 16 of the member states.

The OIE was formed in 1949 within the frame of the first Iber-American Congress on Education. During the third edition of this meeting, held in Santo Domingo in 1957, the OEI was formed as an inter-governmental organisation, and it approved its first statutes. In 1985 the statues of the OEI were revised and brought up to date (OEI, 1985). The statues define the following objectives for the organisation:

-       To contribute to the strengthening of knowledge, mutual understanding, integration, solidarity and peace among the Iber-American peoples through education, science, technology and culture.

-       To collaborate to ensure that the education systems do adhere to a humanist, social, productive and democratising curriculum.

-       To promote and cooperate in the activities oriented towards the raising of levels of education, science, technology and culture.

-       To encourage education as an alternative in the construction of peace, preparing the human being for the exercising of liberty, solidarity, defence of human rights and the changes that would ensure a more just Iber-American society.

-       To promote the linking of educational, scientific, technological and cultural programmes with other plans of development.

-       To promote and accomplish programmes of horizontal cooperation between the member states and between these and institutions from other regions.

-       To cooperate in the insertion of the educative process in the historical-cultural context of the Iber-American peoples, respecting the common identity and the cultural plurality of the Iber-American Community.

-       To contribute to the diffusion of the Spanish and Portuguese languages, perfecting the methods and techniques of the teaching of these languages, as well as their preservation and conservation in the cultural minorities resident in other countries. To promote, at the same time, bilingual education in order to preserve cultural identity of the peoples of Iber-America.

-       To collaborate  closely with and coordinate the governmental bodies that deal with education, science, technology and culture, in order to promote the horizontal cooperation of Iber-American countries in these fields.

The OEI woks in coordination with other institutions of the Iber-American Community, in particular with the Iber-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), calling preparatory conferences for the Iber-American Summits of Heads of States and Government. It has done so since its first edition in 1991.

A high point of this coordination is in the publication of the Iber-American Cultural Letter (SEGIB & OEI, 2006). The Iber-American Cultural Letter was drafted during the fifteenth Iber-American Summit of Heads of States and Government held in Montevideo in 2006. The document seeks to bring together the bases for the structuring of an Iber-American cultural space, promoting an improved position of the Iber-American Community on the international stage, and basing itself on the recognition of its cultural wealth. The proposals of the Iber-American Cultural Letter also cover areas such as the artistic creation and literature, cultural and creative industries, the relationship between culture and human rights, traditional, indigenous and African-descended cultures and migrant populations, copyright, cultural heritage, the links between culture and education, between culture and the environment, and between culture, science and  technology among other elements.

The document proposes the following aims of policies of integration in the cultural space of Iber-America:

-       To affirm the central value of culture as the indispensable basis  of development integral to the human being and to the overcoming of poverty and inequality.

-       To promote and protect cultural diversity as the origin and foundations of the Iber-American culture as well as the multiplicity of its identities, languages, and traditions.

-       To consolidate the Iber-American cultural space as its own unique context, with a basis in solidarity, mutual respect, sovereignty, multiple access to culture and knowledge, and cultural exchange.

-       To facilitate the exchange of cultural goods and services in the Iber-American cultural space.

-       To incentivise the links of solidarity and cooperation in the Iber-American cultural space with other regions of the world so as to encourage intercultural dialogue between peoples.

-       To encourage the protection and dissemination of the cultural and natural heritage, both material and intangible, of the Iber-American region, through the cooperation between countries.

The OEI develops innumerable Iber-American cooperation programmes in the sphere of culture, among which it is worth noting the international conferences and seminars, the specialised publications the programmes of training and education in cultural management, among other programmes.

The International Federation of Councils of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (FICAAC).

The International Federation of Councils of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA) is a global network of councils of arts councils and ministries of culture whose mission is to improve the capacity and efficacy of the governmental agencies of financing for the arts, in order to benefit society through the work in the network, support and promotion, and research.

Among its members are the public institutions of more than seventy countries of all the regions of the world. Additionally, the organisation has more than forty affiliated members made up of universities, private institutions and other bodies. Its head quarters are in Sydney. The organisation was formed in 2003, and its constitution was revised in 2006 and 2009 (IFACCA, 2009).

The objectives of the IFACCA are:

-       To support the leadership of governmental agencies in the financing of the arts through a global perspective that is well-informed about the subjects that affect the arts and cultural policies through:

*Better access to knowledge of the best practices of public support of the arts and culture.

* Calling international meetings to address key issues.

 - To consolidate collective knowledge of the councils of art and the cultural agencies through:

* Improvement of administration and the exchange of ideas and information.

* The management of initiatives of cooperation in terms of resources, research and analysis.

  - To build networks, promoting understanding and stimulating the cooperation between arts councils and national agencies of arts through:

* The facilitation of networks and the mediation of collaborative projects.

*The promotion of public understanding of the role of the federation.

 - To promote the value of public investment in a variety of artistic and cultural practices, through:

*Development of resources to support national agencies of arts in the promotion of the benefits of the arts for society.

* Stimulating dialogue about the impact of the arts and the relationship between the arts and other areas of public policy.

 - To promote the relevant services, with right of reply, and to be checked by the members of the federation, seeking to:

* Ensure effective communication with the members and best practice in corporative governance.

* To administer financial , human and information resources in an efficient and ethical manner.

The constituting documents also includes the objectives related to the support of artists organisation and arts communities in the world through the creation of an international resource and a meeting place for those responsible for cultural policies that seek to support excellence and diversity in the artistic and cultural initiatives (IFACCA, 2009).

IFACCA develops numerous initiatives of international cooperation in terms of public policies, among which is the development of means of communication and dissemination (Boletín ACORNS), the creation of specialist networks (CONNECTCP), the development of meetings and platforms of exchange of information and knowledge, guides to best practice, and material for researchers (Reportes D’Art and Wold CP), among other acitivities.

However, possibly the most important landmark at an international level in the formation of the World Summits on Arts and Culture. These are held regularly every three years in different locations around the world, and aim at giving the opportunity to arts councils and ministries of culture and other agents to discuss key issues in the public support of the arts and creativity.

The World Summit of Arts and Culture will be held in Santiago in January 2014, and the National Council for Culture and the Arts is undertaking significant tasks of production research and generation of content for the meeting, Additionally, the active collaboration of Chile in the IFACCA also means a participation of the head of International Affairs, Magdalena Moreno Mujica, on the board of the international organisation.


Chapter published: 28-12-2013


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