Egypt/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation  

5.3.3 Cultural heritage

In 16 February 2004 the Cairo Declaration on the Protection of Cultural Property was issued and recommended the following:

Call on all non-states parties to the 1954 Convention and its two protocols of 1954 and 1999 to sign the Convention, given the fact that the 20 states have already certified the second protocol, which will enter into force as of 9 March 2004.

Invite all states to adjust their national legislations and regulations in harmony with the provisions of The Hague  Convention of 1954 and its two additional protocols to ensure preventing any violation of the rules pertaining to the protection of cultural property in time of armed conflicts and war and punish the persons responsible for committing these violations or ordering these violation to be committed and providing the necessary protection of the special mark of cultural protection from misuse.

Identify cultural property, prepare the special register in each country, raise the protection mark on this property pursuant to the 1954 Convention and exchange this information on regional and international levels for notification.

Invite the national committees of human rights to dedicate special attention to the protection of cultural property and take the necessary measures to implement the 1954 Conventions and its two protocols on national level given that it represents a special part of the international human rights law they are entrusted to implement and invite these committees also to provide communication and ensure cooperation with the similar national committees.

Invite the countries that are yet to create national human rights law committees or advisory national committees to create them and give them the necessary jurisdictions to implement the cultural property protection mechanisms on national level.

Dedicate special attention to incorporate cultural property protection into the educational and training programs of the armed forces and law enforcement agencies and also into the human rights law curricula of schools and universities.

Promote cooperation in the field of information exchange between all countries, and particularly benefit from the programs of UNESCO and ICRC in the field of exchange of technical assistance, information and advisory expertise in terms of enacting the laws and regulations related to the protection of cultural property on national level.

Consolidate international, regional and national discussions on methods of promoting the protection of cultural heritage; encourage conducting seminars in all Arab countries in order to raise awareness about rules of cultural property protection and exchange expertise and technical assistance between Arab countries and the international organizations involved.

Assign the human rights law committee on Arab level to include the recommendations related to this Declaration within the 2004 regional action.

Urge the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice to dedicate special attention to the issue of cultural property protection in order to encourage all countries to sign bilateral agreements following the example of the agreements signed to prevent crimes related to the violation of cultural heritage of peoples inherited in the form of movable assets, devise the necessary legal and technical mechanisms to achieve that, enhance international cooperation in order to combat the larceny, and illegal excavation, trading, import and export of cultural property and call upon the Committee to dedicate special attention to that issue in the framework of the 11th UN Conference on Crime Prevention and Criminal justice.[1]


Chapter published: 01-04-2016