Syria/ 6. Financing of culture  

6.3. Trends and indicators for private cultural financing

The cultural sponsorship by the private sector in Syria is considered a new issue; it started to appear approximately around the year 2001, in comparison to other countries which entered the world of sponsorship years ago… While the cultural institutions and art groups in the European countries in general or partly adopt the concept of “sponsorship” or the box office or the cultural work -of commercial nature- income. That is still impossible in Syria. 

In 2014, the State is still the major sponsor and caretaker of culture, which provide cultural activities requirements and funding them in Syria.

The entrance of the private Syrian sponsor in supporting cultural projects is extremely slow since the government did not present any motivation till 2009. The big local firms are not similar to their European counterparts who reached an agreement with the government and the decision makers to deduct all private support presented for public culture work from their due taxes.

This matter applies to the foreign institutions and companies that were working in Syria because the money they pay in support for culture even in other countries are deducted from their due taxes at home. Therefore the most important sponsors of culture in Syria are the foreign oil companies working in Syria (Shell Oil Company – Total S.A. – Petro Canada) or large food companies such as Nestlé Middle East, which supports cultural and civilization fields, including helping to restore ancient monuments in Syria such as the Citadel of Damascus.Shell Oil Company was allocating one million dollars annually to support the long term development of society (covering education,  health and culture).

The three foreign oil companies stopped conducting business in Syria during the last month of 2011.

As for Nestlé, a fire destroyed the company’s factory in Rif-Dimashq in February 2013. The factory’s management moved its office to the Four Seasons hotel in Damascus. In July of the same year the Ministry of Labour issued a decision to completely stop the company’s work. 

Most of the Syrian private sector support for culture is limited in advertising and promoting without direct funding. This is because of facilitations and discounts provided by Arab Advertising Organization for all economic leverages. As Arab Advertising Organization wants to convert the advertising to a service to all visions of the society. They were trying to make the commercial advertising a development service to support and enhance cultural activities by giving the advertising sponsor of the cultural activity a discount on the advertising.

The facilitation of advertising sponsoring provided by Arab Advertising Organization to Al-Mahabah Festival in Latakia city is the best example of this kind of support of cultural activities which is enhanced by requesting the private companies to sponsor cultural activities in the festival.

Direct financial assistance provided by the private sector to culture may not be considered a norm (given the very special cases in which such assistance is offered) since "social responsibility" is a fresh concept in Syria and not deemed part of the of the commercial sectors culture. Thus any financial assistance was offered according to the stardom of project owner and his or her personal relations, or if that project or cultural event is sponsored by high-profile official figures. Otherwise this assistance shrinks considerably, exempt of that, the direct financial support of culture by private sector is almost absent or very humble that does not go beyond a few thousand Syrian pounds by communication companies (mobile) or some food companies (Katakit, Manufacturer of Food & Beverages Products). The best example of the limited financial support by private sector is the amount provided by Syriatel Communication Company for Jableh Cultural Festival held by Adiyat Jableh Society (only SYP 150 thousand/USD 3000).

Independent (civil) sector expenditure

There is a lack in the civil organizations working in the cultural field. The existing ones lack experience and knowledge in non-governmental work concepts.

The social participation is weak in expense of the dominance of receiving without giving culture; in addition to the weak financial capabilities and lack of donation for culture therefore there are foundations that still receive support from the Ministry of Social Affairs. The ministry appropriates for every foundation an amount of SYP 25,000.

Societies in Syria benefit a legal personality, which means they can own, express and litigate using their name as stated by Article 10 of the Constitution.

The government implies terms to get an external funding applied to all societies containing an estimative authority for formal administrative references.

These terms are: the funding should be really serving society purposes, the funding must be transferred through formal banks according to the currency regulations and other in force commercial decrees; such as the funding must not come from anti-Syrian party; or be originated directly or indirectly from countries in a state of war with Syria; the funding must be pre authorized by the Ministry of Social Affairs; the requested funding amount must suit the needs of the intended project that will use it in its implementation, (Refer to paragraph 2-6). In 2012, the Syrian government distributed the new law of societies on the participatory website with all of its financial and legal details. In 2013, the State Minister, Joseph Swaid, proclaimed that the law project of civil societies, which organizes the works of non-governmental organizations and civil society institutions and which comes in place of the former law of societies, was going to be displayed on the cooperationist website with its new formula which he considered (one of the most elegant laws of organizations and it’s parallel to the most elegant laws in the world which include the issue of organizations working in the civil sector)[1].

Since the people’s movement in Syria flared up there has been a  growing awareness of the importance of civil society organizations that are distanced  from official institutions, and in response to this the Syrian Center for Research and Studies published a research report entitled “Civil Society Organizations and Their Reality in Syria”[2] on 26 March 2014. The research documented more than 60 civil organizations’ and the activity they directed inside Syria from outside its territories due to non-existent security.  In relation to the importance of the work done by civil orgnaizations, the research stated that when the Syrian Revolution broke out in 2011 most civil society organizations’ participation was minimal and did not exceed the organizing phase. However with the length of the revolution and the regime’s use of immoral and inhuman means, civil society organizations began coming together to meet the needs of Syrians and fill the void of statelessness in most Syrian regions. In addition, it stated that civil society organizations and their networks would carry society through the current period and the coming transitional period, and would protect the nation and its citizens from getting lost and falling into chaos. 

In January 2013 the Syria Advisory Center was opened. On its facebook[3] page description the Executive Director of the center, Mohammad Al Saman states that the idea for the “Syria Advisory Center” came to the group of involved Syria competencies in order to address the effects of the national disaster that Syria is witnessing under repressive dictatorship, and to overcome the period of destruction and devastation by way of reconstruction and development projects with the efforts of civil organizations and contemporary civil society institutions. The group defined the “Syria Advisory Center” as an independent professional advisory body, non-governmental, non-politically affiliated and non-profit. The center aims at organizing and activating the highest levels of Syrian labour qualifications and energy inside and outside the country within a strategic institutional framework to establish and support non-governmental organizations and civil society institutions. The center will also have an instrumental role in efforts to establish, fund and manage civil organizations and civil society institutions in order to overcome the disastrous effects of the immense destruction and devastation that has spread out across various fields and on all levels. The center was established temporarily in the United States, however the Center’s headquarters will be located in the Syrian capital Damascus, and it has branches in several Arab and world capitals. The center’s leaders and staff will be ready to actively work in Syrian territories as soon as an adequate working environment to do so becomes available.        

However, civil cultural organizations (which were still working in Syria up until March 2014, and totaled 127 organizations)[4]  suffer from the seasonality of the cultural work and the absence of a cultural strategic plan which produces new working mechanisms leading to creating new forms of communication between the masses and the organizations, in addition to the weakness of the media and advertisement which introduces these organization is leading to weakening its magnetizing for the local fund.

The Syrian civil cultural organizations are still in the phase of foundation under the absence of civil organized work comprehension on various levels like defining its tasks, councils, mission, strategic plan, attracting volunteers and ensuring financial sources.

The best formal local grant for civil organizations may be the funding from the MOC to the projects of these organizations amounted to 300k SYP ((as a support for some activity held by the civil organization and sponsored by the Ministry)).

Foreign agencies expenditure

To implement the Five-Year Plan, Syria relies on expanding the channels of cooperation in development and using it to bring more of the required foreign investment to finance the development process.

The financial grants that Syria receives are associated with help, experiences and training that contribute in building the national capabilities by transferring knowledge and settling it.

United National (United Nations Development Program - UNICEF) and  the European Union were the most important partners of Syria in financing cultural activities.

The European Union

The European Union is the major donor to Syria in general. The value of the expected projects for 2007-2010 was estimated  130 million Euro. There are two major cooperation fields: economic/institutional reform and social/human development. In the cultural field, the Syrian Government benefits from the funds of the 4th Program of the European-Mediterranean Heritage for which 13.67  million Euro have been allocated. There are also small cultural projects of 17,000  Euro and a project for the youth of 200,000 Euro. Additionally, the EU has allocated a budget for many projects, such as a project to improve the employment of Palestinian refugees with 2.5 million Euro, a project to establish village woman incubator business with 400,000 Euro. The EU specified 10 million Euro to reduce the negative effects of the economic transitional process witnessed by the Syrian economy. The European Union foreign ministers council announced, in May 2011, the suspension of bilateral cooperation programs between the EU and the Syrian government which are enlisted in the frame of European mechanism for vicinity, partnership, and the mechanism of Euro - Mediterranean partnership, in addition to the suspension of all preparations for bilateral cooperation.

In an attempt by the European Union to loosen the sanctions imposed on Syria, on 22/4/2014, an agreement to allow Europeans to buy crude oil from the Opposition was made during the meeting of the EU’s foreign ministers meeting in Luxembourg.

In September 2014 the Policy Officer at the European External Action Program, Greta Galeazzi, published a report on the cultural sector in Syria and cultural relations with Europe as part of the preparatory cultural framework at the EU Council of Foreign Relations. The report explains the current cultural situation and reviews the most important potential opportunities and possibilities in relevant countries, with special focus on strengthening cultural relations between Europe and Syria. The report also includes a description of the general cultural policy scene in Syria offering conclusions, predictions and expectations.[5]     

European Commission

The EC in Syria specifies a budget of €200,000 to support and fund cultural projects through a competition to carry out cultural projects, in addition to projects to commemorate the musician Solh Al-Wadi and some architectural projects.

Also the Euro-Mediterranean Youth Program presents an annual grant varies between 16-40 thousand Euro within the frame of (the Best Project Presented by Civil Organization Competition), “Shams” society received this grant in the year 2008 with its ultimate limit 40 thousand Euros for the funding of the “Euro-Mediterranean Youth Orchestra” project in cooperation with “Syrian Organization for Family Affairs”. The works of the Commission in Syria, after 2011, was concentrated on human relief, because of the difficult circumstances Syrians are living under, inside or outside in the neighboring countries.

In mid-2012 the European Commission made a return to Syria without passing through the official Syrian government portal. The EC signed three main contracts with UN agencies for a sum total of €147 million for the necessary relief assistance to people directly affected by the Syrian crisis, both inside the country and in neighbouring countries. The EC has doubled its aid to Syria and neighbouring countries with an additional €215 million, including €50 million that will be allocated for humanitarian aid, and €165 million euros for the support of long-term development through supporting civil society organizations.   


The total finance allocated to activities and projects funded by the UNICEF in Syria in 2008 amounted to 17 million USD in 2008, while it was 16 million USD in 2007.

The annual cooperation plan between the UNICEF and Syria for 2009, which will be implemented with cooperation of many bodies such as the Ministries of Health, Education, Information and Culture, included the two following programs:

The Syrian Program: which consists of the following components:


  • The Child Survival and Growth Program;
  • Good Quality Basic Education Program;
  • Adolescents Protection from AIDS Program;
  • The Child Protection Program;
  • The Child Rights-Related Policies, Mobilizing Support to them and Building Partnerships Program.



The Palestinian Program: which consists also of the following components:


  • The Child Survival and Growth Program;
  • Primary Education Dissemination Program;
  • Adolescents Growth and Participation Program;
  • The Child Protection Program;
  • Promotion, Communication and Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating Social Policy Program.


The Syrian Program budget amounts to 909,500 USD and the Palestinian Program budget (for the Palestinian refugees resident in Syria) amounts to 522,000 USD. (Both are technical assistance from the UNICEF).

UNICEF and the Syrian government signed on the annual plan for the year 2011 with an estimated budget of 15 million USD, distributed on the following five fields: child survival and growth, efficiency of primary education, teenagers protection from HIV and children protection, and the policies and advertisement for children rights. More than 50% of the budget was set aside for supporting the Ministry of Education in developing educational efficiency and adopting the model of “school is the childhood friend” as a corporation model in the Syrian educational system, which was planned to reach 5000 schools during the 11th Five – Year Plan. As well as, training educational staffs on implementing human standards to those schools and providing all the supplies needed for them for the purpose of accomplishing the principle of “education is for the elite and the elite is for all” in all of their educational activities which care about the child growth, physically and spiritually, along with keeping them away from whatever threatens their health and insurance  to all those working in the schools, job opportunities within the same team.

In October 2012, with the onset of winter, UNICEF made an agreement with the Syrian regime to work on raising the level of its aid to families by providing heating, children’s clothes, and pre-fabricated classroom buildings. On 11/3/2014 UNICEF signed two strategic implementation plans with the Ministry of Local Administration and Environment and the Ministry of Water Resources for a water and environmental rehabilitation program. The Ministry of Local Administration is committed to the implementation plan through rehabilitation of the drainage system in communities with populations of less than 25,000hosting displaced persons, promoting and supporting the solid waste management sector, as well as assessing, rehabilitating and repairing water and drainage systems in temporary accommodation centers and schools. Regarding the Ministry of Water Resources, the implementation plan includes securing reserve drinking water resources in all governorates by installing desalination equipment and securing private drinking water wells, in addition to materials to sterilize and calibrate water. The strategic plan also aims to raise the capacities of non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations in helping affected children and families to build good practices in the fields of personal and environmental hygiene.  

In terms of working with Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries, UNICEF in collaboration with organizations and various countries, play an important role in the establishment of schools and providing support to meet the needs of Syrian refugee communities. Despite all the efforts made, UNICEF announced on 16/6/2014 that, according to its latest statistics, the number of refugee Syrian children in schooling has not exceeded 47% from the total refugee population of chidren in the five countries neighbouring Syria: Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt and Turkey.

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

The cost of the projects implemented by the Funds within an annual plan of cooperation with Syria, based on 7 agreements signed with the State Planning Commission in 2009, 3 millions USD; 1.1 million of them are the contribution of the Syrian Government and 1.9 million is the contribution of the UNFPA.

The Governmental and Non-Governmental Institutional Capacity Building Project include the integration of the gender-based violence issues in the national plans and strategies; the execution time is one year.

The project to be implemented by the MOI with a budget of 115,050 USD, (41,480 USD contribution of the Syrian Government and 73,570 USD contribution of the UNFPA) aims to involve the Information Committee in the implementation of the National Program Strategy on Communication for Family Planning, Maternal Health, Reproductive Health, Population, Development, Gender, Youth, Capacity Building of the National Information (public and private), and Domestic Broadcasting and TV Stations in order to enhance the communication of population issues, to contribute to the community mobilization initiative, and to provide the necessary support to implement the annual plan of the MOI through providing equipment, supplies and support staff.

The National Youth Strategy Project to be implemented by the Syrian Commission for Family Affairs with a budget of 134,600 USD (78,600 USD contribution of the Syrian Government and 56,000 USD contribution of the UNFPA) aims at translating the Policy Summary of the Youth Research into English and printing it in both Arabic and English, editing and printing the Quantitative and Qualitative Researches, as well as the five profound studies, and conducting a training course on the Youth and Reproductive Health and training courses on the MDGs with the International Youth Chamber and theater shows with the Syrian Development Trust-SHABAB Project.

The development projects implemented by the Syrian Government with the UNDP up until 2008 amounted to 40 projects, the budget of 7 of those amounts to 10.6 million USD.

The UNDP technical assistances in 2007 amounted to 2.260 million USD distributed to many projects, mainly the Empowerment and Capacity Building of Young Media-persons to achieve the MDGs.

The UNDP contributes to the budget of the foregoing projects through donations and technical assistances, in addition to the contribution of the Syrian Government and other international donors.

On 30/5/2011, the UNDP announced the suspension of a project for assistances in Syria for five years, explaining in its statement that “it decided, due to the turmoil in Syria, suspending the aids program to the period of 2012-2017,” pointing out that “the decision was taken for the purpose of guaranteeing that the new program would achieve the needs of the Syrian people.”

In 2011, the UNDP was funding, in Syria, projects with an estimated amount of 1 million USD annually and in cooperation with the government for the intention of reinforcing economic growth and renovating the judicial and administrative bodies along with controlling environment, protection from catastrophes and fighting AIDS.

Being one of the largest development bodies existing in Syria before the crisis began, the United Nations Development Program works with affected communities by providing relief and reconstruction of its development assets, revival and protection. The United Nations Development Program also supports host communities in countries neighbouring Syria. The development program focuses on the developmental crisis that will have a long-term impact on the horizons and future development of Syria.  


This is a commission associated with the UN that works on relieving and hiring Palestinian refugees in the Middle East by funding from the European Union. UNRWA has executed a project with time-period of four years and which started in 2006. The project aimed to increase the possibility of employing Palestinian refugees in Syria through artificial education and employment guiding. The project started with two periods which had been prepared especially in the fields of mechatronics and graphic design. The project budget reached 2.5 million.

The UNRWA has also executed the project of children musical centers in cooperation with the directorate of Arab music institutes and Bdakhli musical institute which is non-governmental located in Holland. This project is considered a creative method in reinforcing cultural education for children and supporting their personal growth. The program, which remained for three years, includes a comprehensive training on four musical instruments; lute, flute, drums, and Zither . In 2004, the first children’s center for music was inaugurated in the Yarmouk camp in Damascus. Graduates of those schools usually play at events of high importance, locally and internationally.

According to the  statement published on UNRWA’s website on 2/9/2014 on the status of education:

in Syria, only 42 of the 118 schools affiliated with UNRWA are still operating, some of these schools are working in three consecutive terms wherein the UNRWA also holds semesters of study in 36 substitute buildings.

JICA – Japanese Institution

JICA provides technical donations (instruments and equipment to theaters and halls of cultural centers) continuously depending on the needs of such institutions. JICA, also, organizes technical donations from Japanese organizations to the Syrian cultural sector; for example, the giant industrial Japanese institution, “Mitsubishi”, which specify part of its profits to support cultural activities, provided Dar Al Assad (the Opera) with a technical assistance and presented brass and wind musical instruments –double basses and high quality Musical instruments that serve the technical artistic infrastructure of Dar Al Assad. They, also, presented a financial assistance of 400,000 USD.

In 2011 Damascus University in collaboration with the Japanese Agency JICA held a training course for 25 trainees entitled “Leader Information Officers to Promote E-government” within the framework of an agreement signed between the two parties, which includes a number of training courses designed for personnel capacity building in information technology sections, responsible development management, activation and overseeing information technology systems and governmental organizations.    

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

The Swiss support to culture amounts to around 190,000 Swiss Francs. It was presented by the Swiss Agency for Development to the Syrian MOC, especially for the field of antiquities. The Swiss side pledged to finance many projects to rehabilitate many paths for tourists in many historical cities in Samaan Citadel Zone in Aleppo governorate.

This project comes within the framework of a cultural agreement between the two countries, caring for mutual cooperation in the field of maintaining the Syrian architectural heritage.

Agha Khan network:

This is a group of international secular private agencies that work to improve the opportunities and conditions for people living in specific regions of the developing world. It includes a group of institutions of which Agha Khan Institution for culture concentrates on reactivating local communities in the Islamic world in architectural, social, cultural, and economic aspects. In 2002, Agha Khan network signed the agreement of cooperation for development with the government of the Syrian Arab Republic and worked later to prequalify a bunch of important archaeological buildings along with renovating three citadels.

The Network has activities in the field of education and early childhood, the most important of which is to achieve a data book for kindergarten teachers trainers which is a mutual project that was first operated in October 2008. The Network expressed its desire in cooperating with the ministry on the subject of training on implementing the data book and publishing it, as well as the possibility of relying on the ministry in printing the training data book which consists of seven pocket books after being issued by the ministry in the first half of November 2012.

The last update we received on news from the Agha Network in Syria was regarding the continuation of providing funding in the form of microloans up until 14/8/2014. In February 2014 the Network honoured the Republic’s Mufti and the Minister of National Reconciliation Affairs for its efforts in accelerating the national reconciliation process.

Drusus Institution:

On the level of institutions sponsoring projects and institutions, Drusus institution did not renew, in September 2011, its contract with Syria Trust for Development in supporting the project of “interactive theater at public schools”, which resulted in the project being stopped. The project had first been launched in 2009 with a partnership between both Syria Trust for Development, represented by Rawafid Project and the Ministry of Education, and Drusus Institution[6]. The duration of the project was two years and it was planned to be stretched for another three years before Drusus declared its intention in “postponing” the project due to the turmoil happening in Syria. The real reasons standing behind the decision were that the project was directly bonded with Syria Trust for Development, which had been founded and supervised by Asmaa Al Assad, the wife of the president of the current Syrian regime.

However, Drusus has still continued working inside Syria by supporting the project of “Ar-riyad Ad-damija” which was launched by the society of “Afaaq Arrooh for disabled women and the mothers of disabled children”[7]. The project, which was launched in 2011, aims to achieve equal opportunities for disabled children aged between 3 – 6 years old to join kindergartens with their relatives.

On 11/11/2013 the director of media and public relations of the Ar-riyad Ad-damija Bassam Al Qadi resigned from the project without giving reason.

Friedrich Ebert Foundation

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation is a non-profit organization committed to social democratic values that was established in 1925. The organization supports building civil society and public institutions through its projects in more than 100 countries. Despite lacking an official presence in Syria in the form of a representing office in Damascus, as in the rest of the Middle Eastern capitals, the Foundation works with specific partners in Syria. Throughout 2013 and 2014 the Foundation held two workshops on civil society and strategic planning in Lebanon and Turkey, a workshop on project design, and two workshops in management skills and team building. The five workshops targeted nearly 100 young Syrian activists residing in or outside Syria, made up of 21 groups, four of which received support from the Foundation for completing their projects. Three projects received support from international organizations after completing the workshops organized by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation.    

Foreign Cultural centers:

Foreign cultural centers were considered an important source for funding independent and youth cultural activists and artists in Syria, however, those centers shut their doors and stopped all of their activities as a result of the turmoil in Syria, (as we’ve mentioned before) while a few remained funding activities of Syrian youth outside Syria such as the British Council.

Regionally and on the level of non-governmental funding institutions, an announcement was made regarding some programs which were especially for supporting Arab artists generally (particularly Syrians) in the time of transformations that some Arab states are witnessing and here we refer to two main examples:

Al Mawrid Cultural Institution[8]:

It announced shortly after revolutions had started “an exceptional program for productive grants”. It was said , according to Al Mawrid’s statement on its website, “responding to the Arab people movement demanding freedom and justice and as an assurance on the role of art as a political and social engine and a speaker for the revolution, Al Mawrid Cultural Institution launched an exceptional program to support producing creative works in all artistic and literary fields that reflect the initiative of Arab elites to express about popular uprisings and revolutions which the Arab region is currently witnessing.”

132 students from 14 Arab countries applied to the program and the number of artists who received the grants was 13, of which no one was from Syria. However, a number of Syrian artists (5 artists) were able to get various productive grants from Al Mawrid during the two periods of normal grants that the institution periodically announced during both years, 2011 and 2012.

In 2011, Al Mawrid Cultural Institution launched a program entitled “Abbarah” to support independent cultural institutions during the period of democratic transformation. The program intends to support the institutional structure of the cultural groups and make it more rigid and stable in pursuit of having independent cultural institutions play a major role in building democracy, in addition to their primary role in providing cultural and artistic services to a wide range of sectors in the society.

Two Syrian institutions received the program support: “Ettijahat. Independent Culture” and “Titaro”.

In 2013 six Syrian artists received productive scholarships from Al Mawred Al Thaqafy; in 2014 three Syrian artists received productive scholarships through the first cycle of grants from Al Mawred Al Thaqafy, in various artistic fields.

The Arab Chamber of Culture and Art – Afaaq[9]:

During the years, 2011 and 2012, the Arab Chamber of Culture and Art launched a program with the name “Afaaq Express” and as the name reveals, it’s specialized in supporting artists in different Arab countries who have been negatively affected by what’s happening and lost all sources of money to become in desperate need of emergency financial aids to complete their cultural and artistic projects. A lot of Arab artists benefited from the program are from many different Arab countries, while in Syria six artists received the grant to complete their artistic projects.
In 2013 14 Syrian artists benefited from Afaaq scholarships, as did six Syrian artists up until the end of September 2014, in various artistic and cultural fields.

Noticeably, the artistic activities created by the Syrian artists who received artistic grants in 2011-2012, were not necessarily directly related to the concept of revolution that Syria witnessed and still hadn’t been announced at the date of preparing this report. Subsequent grants were awarded to artists with different political leanings, some of whom were blatantly pro-Syrian Revolution. 

[4] According to the research “Civil Society Organizations and their Reality in Syria”, Syria Advisory Center


[6]A funding institution located in Switzerland, conformed to having individuals capable of improving their lives, in addition to supporting talents and helping to create appropriate conditions that help people bear this responsibility.

[7]A Syrian development society, founded in 2005 with a declaration number 5522.

[8]A regional non-profit institution that intends to support art creativity in the Arab world and to encourage cultural exchange inside the Arab region and with developed countries.

[9]An independent institution, founded in 2007, that funds individuals and institutions working in the different fields of art, as well as, working on easing exchange, cooperation and research in the art field in the Arab region and the world.

Chapter published: 09-05-2016