4.2.1 Conceptual issues of policies for the arts
Not only as a consequence of the difficult situation of public cultural budgets, an increasing debate on concepts and instruments of maintaining the current cultural infrastructure can be noted. Subject matters include also regularisation (of support) in special cultural areas such as e.g. libraries as cultural development programmes.
After the turn of the millennium, the focus on the idea of concept-based cultural policy, already included in the "New Cultural Policy" ("Neue Kulturpolitik") of the 1970s, increased especially concerning social challenges as demographic change, diagnosed social divide, interculturality, digitalization, differentiation of public interests and the financial status of the public budget situation. More and more cultural policy is perceived as conceptual organisational task and new governance structures are developed. Federal states (Länder) and municipalities (Kommunen), however, use quite different ways to achieve a more concept-based cultural policy.