4.2.9 Employment policies for the cultural sector
In 2014, according to the "Monitoring of selected economic key data on culture and creative industries 2014", 1 057 million people earned their main income in the culture and creative industries. With only 76.5%, employees make up a smaller share than in other fields of industry (average of the overall economy is 90%). With a comparatively high number of around 559 000 further workers in minor employment in addition (349 000 marginal employees and 210 000 marginally self-employed), the overall number of people employed in the sector 2014 was nearly 1.62 million. The cultural and creative industries employ about as many workers as the engineering industry, but significantly more than the automotive industry, the financial services or the chemical industry and the energy supply companies. In the comparable sectors, you will find almost exclusively employees liable to pay social security deductions, whereas the culture and creative industries employ a high share of freelancers and self-employed persons with an annual turnover of at least 17 500 EUR.
The new Bundesländer, but also some structurally weak regions in the west part of Germany, have repeatedly attracted EU funds to support employment in the cultural sector. These funds have been used to support, for example, the development of municipal cultural planning (in Brandenburg) or the training of cultural managers in the rural districts of Lower Saxony, co-financed by the Land and the Federal Agency of Labour.
Indirect employment effects for the cultural sector are also generated through other EU Structural Funds. The European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) is often used to finance the restoration of protected monuments like castles and churches or for the protection and restoration of cultural heritage in the context of rural development. The Land Brandenburg derived funding from the European Programme for Regional Development (EFRE) to create a municipal investment programme for culture. In North-Rhine-Westphalia, the Ruhrgebiet has benefited the most from the Structural Funds, e. g. to develop the Zeche Zollverein in Essen, which is on the UNESCO list of World Cultural Heritage.
Therefore employment measures in some of the Bundesländer are at least indirectly supported via the Structural Funds of the EU as well as from economic and investment support programmes of the federal states (Länder) and the Federal Government (e. g. the Investment Support Law), which are increasingly being opened up to the culture sector.