United Kingdom/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation  

8.2.1 Trends and figures

England

We have extracted cultural consumption and participation data from Arts Engagement in England from 2005/06 to 2007-08: Findings from the first 3 years of the Taking Part Survey, a report prepared for Arts Council England by Anni Oskala and Catherine Bunting (September 2009) and based on the Taking Part Survey and related reports. The survey was intended to be a year on year comparative survey which started in 2005/06. It covers responses from approximately 28 000 adults in England (aged 16 +), The Taking Part Survey provides information on engagement with cultural, leisure and sporting activities in the 12 months prior to interview, as well as socio-demographic information and includes people in every region, from every type of social group.

Analysis shows little change in arts attendance and participation over the period 2005/06 - 2007/08, with rates remaining stable. This is also true of the demographic profile of audiences / participants. Exceptions where attendance increased are sociable types of events - e.g. musicals, pantomime, rock and pop concerts leading the report to highlight that a focus on audience experience may enable other kinds of arts events to broaden their appeal. The findings also show the role broadcasters have to play, due to the significant increase in participation in dance which may be due to the success of TV shows such as "Strictly Come Dancing", which has helped to popularise dance as a leisure activity for a wider range of people.

Attendance: the proportion of people attending at least one of these events has been stable at around 67% of the population over the period 2005/06-2007/8. Two events where attendance increased consistently over the period from 2005/06 to 2007/08 were other theatre performances such as musicals and pantomime (from 25.5% to 27.7%), and live music events other than classical or jazz (from 24.4% to 26.2%). Craft exhibitions experienced a gradual decline in attendance from 15.4% in 2005/06 to 13.9% in 2007/08. Attendance at classical music performances fell gradually from 8.3% to 7.6%.

Participation: The overall participation rate remained stable at around 47% of the population over 2005/06 to 2007/08. However, as with attendance, there were some changes in levels of participation in individual activities. The only arts activity where participation increased moderately was dance (other than ballet): the proportion of people dancing increased steadily from 8.4% in 2005/06 to 9.7% in 2007/08. There were declines in participation in a number of visual arts and crafts activities. There were also drops in opera participation and in writing poetry. Participation in the remaining activities including all musical activities, ballet, photography, textile crafts and writing stories remained steady.

Socio - Economic Factors: Education remains the strongest and most constant predicator of arts engagement. Generally, there was little significant trend variations, though attendances by people with "Other" (i.e. non specific) qualifications fell from 60.2% to 54% over the three years. Social status, income, ethnic group, gender, age, level of general health and the region a person lives in, have a significant impact on an individual's chances of being an active engager in the arts. These inequalities reflect and perpetuate longstanding social norms and patterns of stratification and exclusion in society.

Regional Variations: Attendance increased in North West England between 2006/07 and 2007/08, from 61.9% to 65.6%, and participation from 41.1% to 44.7%. However, over the period from 2005/06 to 2007/08 participation declined in both North East England and London. The increase seen in the North West is likely to be linked to Liverpool as European Capital of Culture in 2008, with the lead-up and launch of the celebrations taking place during the fieldwork period of the 2007/08 dataset (data separately available show that Liverpool attracted 27% more visitors to the city during 2008, its period as European Capital of Culture, and, there were big increases in arts attendance, reflecting the wide range of events). This suggests that an intensive, city or region-wide focus on culture can make a profound difference to the ways in which people think and feel about the arts and whether they choose to engage.

Attendance

Table 6:     Proportion of English adults attending arts events in the past 12 months, 2005/06 - 2007/08

 

2005/2006

2006/2007

2007/2008

Types of arts events attended during the past 12 months

%

Range

%

Range

%

Range

Art / Photography / Sculpture Exhibition

21.8

+/- 0.6

21.4

+/- 0.7

21.5

+/- 0.7

Craft exhibition

15.4

+/- 0.6

14.3

+/- 0.6

13.9

+/- 0.6

Event with video or electronic art

4.1

+/- 0.3

4.2

+/- 0.3

3.7

+/- 0.3

Event connected with books or writing

4.9

+/- 0.3

4.6

+/- 0.3

4.4

+/- 0.3

Street arts or circus (not animals)

13.7

+/- 0.5

13.6

+/- 0.6

14.2

+/- 0.6

Carnival

17.3

+/- 0.5

17.2

+/- 0.6

16.8

+/- 0.6

Culturally specific festival e.g. Mela

5.6

+/- 0.3

5.4

+/- 0.4

5.1

+/- 0.4

Play or drama

22.7

+/- 0.6

21.7

+/- 0.7

22.4

+/- 0.7

Other theatre e.g. musical, pantomime

25.5

+/- 0.6

26.2

+/- 0.7

27.7

+/- 0.7

Opera or operetta

4.4

+/- 0.3

3.8

+/- 0.3

3.9

+/- 0.3

Classical music concert

8.3

+/- 0.4

7.7

+/- 0.4

7.6

+/- 0.4

Jazz performance

5.6

+/- 0.4

5.6

+/- 0.4

5.4

+/- 0.4

Other live music event

24.4

+/- 0.7

24.9

+/- 0.7

26.2

+/- 0.7

Ballet

3.9

+/- 0.3

3.5

+/- 0.3

3.7

+/- 0.3

Contemporary dance

2.2

+/- 0.2

2.0

+/- 0.2

2.3

+/- 0.3

African / South Asian / Chinese dance

2.5

+/- 0.2

2.3

+/- 0.3

2.4

+/- 0.3

Other live dance event

3.8

+/- 0.3

3.4

+/- 0.3

3.7

+/- 0.3

Total

66.5

+/- 0.7

66.4

+/- 0.8

67.4

+/- 0.7

Sample size

28 117

24 174

25 720

Source:      Arts Engagement in England from 2005/06 to 2007-08: Findings from the first 3 years of the Taking Part Survey. Report prepared for Arts Council by Anni Oskala and Catherine Bunting (September 2009).

Table 7:     Attendance in at least one arts event by demographic subgroup, 2005/06-2007/08

 

2005/2006

2006/2007

2007/2008

 

%

Range

%

Range

%

Range

GENDER

Men

64.5

+/- 1.0

64.9

+/- 1.2

65.1

+/- 1.1

Women

68.4

+/- 0.9

67.9

+/- 1.0

69.6

+/- 0.9

AGE

16-24

66.0

+/- 2.2

65.7

+/- 2.5

65.8

+/- 2.3

25-44

70.6

+/- 1.1

70.7

+/- 1.3

71.3

+/- 1.1

45-64

70.4

+/- 1.2

70.6

+/- 1.4

72.0

+/- 1.2

65-74

60.8

+/- 2.0

61.6

+/- 2.3

63.4

+/- 2.0

75+

44.5

+/- 2.2

43.7

+/- 2.5

45.4

+/- 2.2

Disability Status

No limiting disability / illness / infirmity

69.9

+/- 0.8

69.6

+/- 0.9

70.9

+/- 0.8

Limiting disability / illness / infirmity

54.2

+/- 1.5

54.3

+/- 1.7

53.7

+/- 1.5

Government Region

North East

59.2

+/- 2.4

60.7

+/- 2.7

57.0

+/- 2.4

North West

61.3

+/- 2.0

61.9

+/- 2.4

65.6

+/- 2.1

Yorkshire & Humber

60.8

+/- 2.1

61.2

+/- 2.5

61.4

+/- 2.2

East Midlands

65.3

+/- 2.2

66.2

+/- 2.5

66.3

+/- 2.2

West Midlands

64.0

+/- 2.0

63.1

+/- 2.5

64.7

+/- 2.1

East of England

69.4

+/- 2.1

72.1

+/- 2.3

69.2

+/- 2.1

London

66.0

+/- 1.0

63.3

+/- 2.1

66.6

+/- 2.0

South East

73.1

+/- 1.8

72.8

+/- 2.1

74.8

+/- 1.8

South West

73.5

+/- 1.9

72.2

+/- 2.3

72.3

+/- 1.9

Ethnic Group

White

67.4

+/- 0.8

67.5

+/- 0.8

68.1

+/- 0.7

Black or minority ethnic

58.8

+/- 1.9

56.8

+/- 2.4

61.3

+/- 2.2

Socio-economic group (NS-SEC)

Higher socio-economic groups

76.6

+/- 0.9

76.7

+/- 1.0

76.7

+/- 0.9

Lower socio-economic groups

52.4

+/- 1.1

51.9

+/- 1.3

53.8

+/- 1.1

Highest Qualification

Degree

85.7

+/- 1.1

85.4

+/- 1.3

85.3

+/- 1.1

Other higher education below degree

77.6

+/- 1.9

78.7

+/- 2.2

77.9

+/- 2.0

A-levels

73.9

+/- 1.7

73.8

+/- 2.0

74.5

+/- 1.7

Trade apprenticeships

56.9

+/- 3.4

60.9

+/- 4.1

58.7

+/- 3.6

Below A-levels

66.8

+/- 1.5

64.7

+/- 1.8

65.5

+/- 1.6

Other qualifications (level unknown)

60.2

+/- 3.5

55.3

+/- 4.1

54.0

+/- 3.7

No qualifications

43.8

+/- 1.3

44.1

+/- 1.6

45.5

+/- 1.4

Personal Income

No income/no work or scheme

61.8

+/- 3.3

53.8

+/- 3.5

58.2

+/- 2.9

Under GBP 10 000

60.2

+/- 1.3

58.6

+/- 1.5

59.9

+/- 1.4

GBP 10 000 - GBP 19 999

67.7

+/- 1.5

68.3

+/- 1.7

67.0

+/- 1.5

GBP 20 000 - GBP 29 999

76.7

+/- 1.8

77.0

+/- 2.1

75.7

+/- 1.8

GBP 30 000 - GBP 39 999

80.6

+/- 2.3

82.4

+/- 2.6

82.8

+/- 2.2

Over GBP 40 000

79.3

+/- 2.2

80.2

+/- 2.5

82.4

+/- 2.0

Overall sample size

28 117

24 174

25 720

Source:      Arts Engagement in England from 2005/06 to 2007-08: Findings from the first 3 years of the Taking Part Survey. Report prepared for Arts Council by Anni Oskala and Catherine Bunting (September 2009).

Table 8:     Percentage attending historic environment sites in England, 2008/2009

Type of historic environment site

Percentage

Range

city or town with historic character

51

+/- 1.2

historic park, garden or landscape open to the public

38

+/- 1.1

monument such as a castle, fort or ruin

35.9

+/- 1.1

historic building open to the public (non religious)

35.3

+/- 1.1

historic place of worship attended as a visitor

25.8

+/- 1.0

place connected with history or historic transport system

19.9

+/- 0.9

site of archaeological interest

15.1

+/- 0.8

site connected with sports heritage

5.0

+/- 0.5

Source:      Department of Culture Media & Sport, Taking Part: The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport PSA21: Indicator 6 - Final baseline results from the 2008/09 Taking Part survey (August 2009).

Audiences for Orchestral Music

An analysis of box office data from 12 London-based orchestras and concert halls over a six year period (2003-2009) suggests that audiences for orchestral music are more loyal and are likely to attend more often than audiences for other performing artforms. The research, Benchmarking audiences for orchestral music in London, covered more than 2 000 events. Nevertheless, the research conducted by Audiences London indicates that the majority of concert audience members attend infrequently, and so a marketing campaign is planned to address this.

Participation

Table 9:     Proportion of English adults participating in arts activities in the past 12 months, 2005/06 - 2007/08

Participation Rates

2005/2006

2006/2007

2007/2008

Type of arts activity

%

Range

%

Range

%

Range

Ballet

0.5

+/- 0.1

0.5

+/- 0.1

0.5

+/- 0.1

Other dance (not for fitness)

8.4

+/- 0.4

9.2

+/- 0.5

9.7

+/- 0.4

Singing to an audience (not karaoke)

4.2

+/- 0.3

3.8

+/- 0.3

4.0

+/- 0.3

Playing an instrument to an audience

3.4

+/- 0.3

3.2

+/- 0.3

3.4

+/- 0.3

Playing an instrument for pleasure

11.5

+/- 0.5

10.6

+/- 0.5

11.1

+/- 0.5

Writing music

2.6

+/- 0.2

2.7

+/- 0.3

2.6

+/- 0.2

Rehearsed / performed in play / drama

2.1

+/- 0.2

1.9

+/- 0.2

2.0

+/- 0.2

Rehearsed / performed in opera

0.5

+/- 0.1

0.4

+/- 0.1

0.3

+/- 0.1

Painting / drawing / sculpture etc

13.3

+/- 0.5

12.2

+/- 0.5

12.2

+/- 0.5

Photography

9.2

+/- 0.4

9.5

+/- 0.5

9.3

+/- 0.4

Making films or videos

2.2

+/- 0.3

2.6

+/- 0.3

2.2

+/- 0.2

Computer art / animation

11.6

+/- 0.5

10.1

+/- 0.5

9.7

+/- 0.4

Textile crafts

13.0

+/- 0.5

12.6

+/- 0.6

12.6

+/- 0.5

Wood crafts

4.8

+/- 0.3

4.3

+/- 0.3

4.2

+/- 0.3

Other crafts (e.g. calligraphy / pottery)

4.7

+/- 0.3

4.4

+/- 0.3

4.3

+/- 0.3

Writing stories or plays

3.2

+/- 0.3

3.1

+/- 0.3

3.2

+/- 0.3

Writing poetry

4.3

+/- 0.3

3.8

+/- 0.3

3.6

+/- 0.3

Any of the above

47.9

+/- 0.3

46.9

+/- 0.8

47.1

+/- 0.7

Sample Size

28 117

24 174

25 720

Source:      Arts Engagement in England from 2005/06 to 2007-08: Findings from the first 3 years of the Taking Part Survey. Report prepared for Arts Council by Anni Oskala and Catherine Bunting (September 2009).

Other engagement

Table 10:   Other cultural engagement by English adults, 2005/06 - 2007/08

 

2005/2006

2006/2007

2007/2008

Other cultural engagement

%

Range

%

Range

%

Range

Going to see a film at a cinema or other venue

52.3

+/- 0.7

51.9

+/- 0.8

51.7

+/- 0.7

Buying original works of art for yourself

7.3

+/- 0.4

6.6

+/- 0.4

6.7

+/- 0.4

Buying original handmade crafts for yourself

16

+/- 0.5

14.9

+/- 0.6

14.4

+/- 0.5

Reading for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines, comics)

62.8

+/- 0.7

63.2

+/- 0.8

64.2

+/- 0.7

Buying a novel or book of stories, poetry or plays for yourself

44.9

+/- 0.7

43.8

+/- 0.8

44

+/- 0.7

Volunteering

24.1

+/- 0.6

23.9

+/- 0.7

24

+/- 0.6

Volunteering related to the arts

1.5

+/- 0.2

1.4

+/- 0.2

1.7

+/- 0.2

Sample Size

28 117

24 174

25720

Source:      Arts Engagement in England from 2005/06 to 2007-08: Findings from the first 3 years of the Taking Part Survey. Report prepared for Arts Council by Anni Oskala and Catherine Bunting (September 2009.

When this research was completed, the authors learnt that new data from the Department of Culture, Media and Sport suggests that the proportion of adults participating in the arts had declined since 2008 in every English region: this was based on data collected via Sport England's Active People Survey and referred to the number of people who had either attended an arts event or participated in an arts activity at least three times in the previous 12 months. No further information was available in time.

Importance of childhood arts engagement

Parental encouragement of children's attendance or participation in the arts is almost as important a factor in later adult arts interest as arts education is according to a report - Encourage children today to build audiences for tomorrow. Data in the report was derived from the DCMS annual survey Taking Part. It suggests that girls are more likely than boys to receive such encouragement, and non-white children are encouraged less than their white counterparts.

SCOTLAND

In the annual Scottish Household Survey, there is a Culture and Sport suite of questions on the extent of cultural participation and attendance of adults (16 years and over) in Scotland. The findings of the 2009 survey of more than 9 000 adults included the following data:

Cultural Participation

74% of adults had participated in (ie had undertaken) a cultural activity in the last 12 months, a fall of 5% over the 2007 survey.

The most common category of cultural activity was reading for pleasure (excluding newspapers, magazines and comics) (63%). The next most popular pastimes were dance (19%), craftwork such as textiles, woodwork and pottery (11%), playing a musical instrument or music (11%), and art / sculpture (10%). All these figures, with the exception of music activity, are down a few percentage points on 2007 data.

Many of the other findings were unsurprising:

  • women were more likely to have participated in some form of cultural activity than men (79% v 68%);
  • those in the least deprived areas were much more likely than those in the most deprived areas to have done any type of cultural activity;
  • those on lower incomes were less likely to participate than those on higher incomes; and
  • those who held higher qualifications had higher participation rates than those with no qualifications at all.

Table 11:   Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by gender and age (Scotland), in %, 2009

Adults

Male

Female

16 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 59

60 to 74

75 plus

All

Read for pleasure

57

69

53

66

65

65

66

59

63

Dance

15

22

28

24

17

18

17

6

19

Crafts such as textile, wood, pottery, etc.

6

16

8

10

12

11

14

13

11

Played a musical instrument or written music

8

11

18

13

10

7

6

5

10

Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture

14

8

20

16

11

9

6

4

11

Photography as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps')

9

6

10

8

7

8

7

3

8

Used a computer to create original artworks or animation

9

6

11

12

8

6

4

1

7

Rehearsed, performed or sang in front of audience, e.g. play or choir (not karaoke)

6

5

10

6

5

5

3

2

5

Written any stories, books, plays or poetry

4

4

6

5

5

3

3

2

4

Made films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holidays)

2

1

5

2

2

1

1

0

2

Other cultural activity

3

2

3

4

2

2

2

2

2

None

32

21

27

24

26

27

25

33

26

Base

4 027

5 108

750

1 214

1 597

2 220

2 178

1 176

9 135

Notes:       Columns add to more than 100% since multiple responses allowed. This question is only asked of three-quarters of the sample.

As well as being the most common pastime overall, reading for pleasure is also the most frequently undertaken cultural activity by a considerable margin (83% read at least once a week). Among those engaged in painting, drawing, sculpting and printmaking there is also evidence that this pastime is pursued relatively frequently (58% participate in it at least once a week).

Table 12:   Frequency of participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months (Scotland), in %, 2009

Adults

At least once a week (52)

Less often than once a week but at least once a month (12)

Less often than once a month but at least 3-4 times a year (4)

Twice in the last 12 months (2)

Once in the last 12 months (1)

Don't know

Total

Base

'Mean'

Read for pleasure

83

10

5

2

1

0

100

5 847

44.6

Dance

28

23

27

14

7

0

100

1 662

18.7

Crafts such as textile, wood, pottery, etc.

45

23

19

8

4

0

100

1 140

27.1

Played a musical instrument or written music

42

26

19

9

3

0

100

803

25.9

Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture

58

22

12

5

2

0

100

881

33.4

Photography as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps')

32

34

23

8

3

1

100

663

21.8

Used a computer to create original artworks or animation

33

26

23

10

8

1

100

552

21.4

Rehearsed, performed or sang in front of audience, e.g. play or choir (not karaoke)

33

22

20

11

13

1

100

403

20.9

Written any stories, books, plays or poetry

36

27

19

7

10

1

100

354

22.9

Made films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holidays)

22

22

25

17

14

0

100

139

15.5

Other cultural activity

52

24

14

7

2

2

100

272

30.6

Notes:       1. This question is asked of three-quarters of the sample.
                  2. To aid comparison between different activities, a 'mean' was calculated by assigning approximate scores to the frequency scale used in this question. The resulting scores are shown in the right hand column of the table. These are intended to give a guide to relative frequency rather than a 'true' indication of average frequency with which each of the activities are undertaken. People who have read for pleasure have done so on average 45 times a year, which compares to around 20 times for other activities.

Cultural Attendance

  • 74% of adults had attended or visited at least one cultural event or place in Scotland in the previous 12 months. On average these people attended approximately three different types of event or places.
  • The cinema was the most popular cultural event attended (53%), followed by visiting a library (29%), theatre performance including musicals or pantomimes (27%), going to a live music event (27%) or a museum (26%). Overall the findings are broadly comparable to 2007 estimates, but there was a marked decline in library attendance and museum visits.
  • As with participation results, those living in the most deprived areas were much less likely than those in the least deprived areas to have attended a cultural event in the previous 12 months
  • Differences in educational attainment were even more marked in attendance results than in participation. People with a degree or professional qualification were the highest attendees for almost all events / places.

See also: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/08/25092046/0

Table 13:   Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by gender and age (Scotland), in %, 2009

Adults

Male

Female

16 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 59

60 to 74

75 plus

All

Film at cinema or other venue

51

54

79

73

64

49

30

13

52

Library (any type of library, e.g. public / mobile / online)

25

32

29

32

32

26

28

23

28

Play, drama other theatrical performance (musical / pantomime)

22

32

20

26

29

31

29

19

27

Other live music event e.g. jazz event

29

26

36

39

32

28

16

7

27

Museum

26

26

20

33

33

27

25

13

26

Place of historical or archaeological interest

22

18

13

22

24

23

20

9

20

Exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture

17

18

13

20

19

20

17

10

17

Gallery

17

16

12

20

20

18

16

9

17

Craft exhibition

8

13

5

9

11

15

13

7

11

Street arts (art in everyday surroundings like parks, streets or shopping centre) or circus (not animals)

10

11

11

15

14

11

6

2

10

Opera / operetta / classical music performance

5

7

3

4

5

7

9

7

6

Culturally specific festival (mela / feis)

7

6

6

9

8

7

5

2

6

Ballet / contemporary dance / other live dance event e.g. multi cultural

3

7

4

6

6

5

4

2

5

Event connected with books or writing

5

5

4

5

6

6

5

2

5

Archive or records office

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

1

2

None

28

25

13

15

19

29

35

54

26

Base

4 027

5 107

750

1 213

1 597

2 220

2 178

1 176

9 134

Notes:       Columns add to more than 100% since multiple responses allowed. This question is only asked of three-quarters of the sample.

Although there were variations in attendance across income groups, the following table clearly reveals greater attendance as income rises (even for street arts). The exception is attending libraries, where there are fairly consistent attendance levels across income groups, probably because library services are either free or low cost and libraries are used for a range of purposes. Relatively high levels of attendance among those with incomes of less than GBP 6 000, may be attributable to the number of students in this income bracket.

Table 14:   Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by total household income in GBP (Scotland), in %, 2009

Adults

0 - 6 000

6 001 -10 000

10 001 -15 000

15 001 - 20 000

20 001 - 25 000

25 001 - 30 000

30 001 - 40 000

40 001+

All

Film at cinema or other venue

42

33

37

45

51

60

67

74

53

Library (any type of library, e.g. public / mobile / online)

30

23

25

27

27

29

30

34

28

Play, drama other theatrical performance (musical / pantomime)

20

17

19

22

26

28

33

42

27

Other live music event e.g. jazz event

19

14

18

22

26

29

38

43

28

Museum

20

14

19

24

25

28

33

40

26

Place of historical or archaeological interest

14

9

11

15

19

24

25

34

20

Exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture

12

8

11

15

16

18

21

30

17

Gallery

11

9

10

12

16

18

20

28

16

Craft exhibition

10

8

8

9

9

12

12

16

11

Street arts (art in everyday surroundings like parks, streets or shopping centre) or circus (not animals)

9

6

6

9

9

11

14

17

11

Opera / operetta / classical music performance

8

4

4

6

6

5

7

10

6

Culturally specific festival (mela/feis)

7

3

3

5

7

8

7

9

6

Ballet / contemporary dance / other live dance event e.g. multi cultural

7

3

3

4

5

5

6

8

5

Event connected with books or writing

4

3

3

3

5

5

6

9

5

Archive or records office

3

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

2

None

36

43

39

28

27

21

14

11

26

Base

456

1 201

1 807

1 339

1 019

820

1 112

1 074

8 828

Notes:       Columns add to more than 100% since multiple responses allowed. This question is only asked of three-quarters of the sample.

In relation to frequency of attendance, library use is higher by far them all other cultural activities, with 20% having visited a library at least once a week and a further 39% at least monthly. Again the multiple information uses to which libraries are part, as well as the availability of free books and free or low cost CDs and DVDs will be a factor in this.

Table 15:   Frequency of attending cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months (Scotland), in %, 2009

Adults

At least once a week (52)

Less often than once a week / at least once a month (12)

Less often than once a month / at least 3-4 times a year (4)

Twice in the last 12 months (2)

Once in the last 12 months (1)

Don't know

Total

Base

'Mean'

Film at cinema or other venue

4

24

43

20

9

0

100

4 256

6.9

Library (any type of library, e.g. public / mobile / online)

20

39

22

13

6

0

100

2 617

16.1

Play, drama other theatrical performance (musical / pantomime)

1

4

31

34

29

0

100

2 450

3

Other live music event e.g. jazz event

2

7

30

35

27

0

100

2 310

3.7

Museum

2

10

33

32

24

0

100

2 258

4.3

Place of historical or archaeological interest

2

8

32

33

24

0

100

1 701

4

Exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture

2

8

28

33

28

0

100

1 549

3.8

Gallery

2

8

28

32

28

0

100

1 422

4.3

Craft exhibition

1

5

21

38

35

0

100

1 067

2.9

Street arts (art in everyday surroundings like parks, streets or shopping centre) or circus (not animals)

3

5

17

30

45

1

100

856

3.6

Opera / operetta / classical music performance

1

4

25

28

40

1

100

610

3.1

Culturally specific festival (mela/feis)

1

4

14

30

50

0

100

596

2.6

Ballet / contemporary dance / other live dance event e.g. multi cultural

2

4

15

22

56

1

100

442

2.8

Event connected with books or writing

3

8

21

29

39

1

100

446

4

Archive or records office

5

8

19

32

35

1

100

231

5.4

Notes:       1. This question is only asked of three-quarters of the sample.
                  2. To enable ‘mean' frequency to be calculated, values were assigned to the frequency scales as shown in the table in the headings row. These are approximate values only to aid interpretation of the data.

WALES

Table 16:   Arts attendance - percentage of adults in Wales that attended different types of artforms once a year or more often, 2005 compared with 2010

Art form

2005

2010

Cinema

54%

62%

Live music

39%

51%

Carnival and street arts

33%

37%

Plays

27%

32%

Art/craft galleries

26%

39%

Musicals (not opera)

23%

30%

Classical music

13%

15%

Folk / Trad / world music

11%

14%

Jazz concert

10%

10%

Contemporary dance

7%

8%

Opera

7%

7%

Ballet

5%

6%

Readings / Story tellings

5%

10%

Pantomine

N/A

28%

Arts festival

N/A

25%

Sources:    Arts in Wales, Attendance, Participation and Attitudes, Report of Survey Findings, Arts Council Wales 2005. Arts in Wales 2010: Attitudes, attendance and participation, Arts Council of Wales, 2010.
Base:         2005 (6 851), 2010 (7 083)
Notes:       "Pantomime" was not included as a category in the 2005 survey and "Arts Festival" was grouped with other art forms.

The largest ever survey of people's attitudes to the arts, their attendance and participation levels was conducted in 2005 for the Arts Council of Wales. Five years later the Arts Council published the findings of a new survey and the timeframe enables some comparison to be drawn. The key finding is that there has been a significant increase in arts engagement in Wales, both in terms of attendance and participation. In 2010, 86% of those surveyed indicated they normally attended an arts event at least once a year, a 10% increase on 2005 - while 39% said they normally participated in an arts activity at least once a year, which was almost double the 20% recorded in 2005.

Cinema remained the most popular attended activity, with 62% indicating they attended at least once a year compared with 54% in 2005. Other large increases in attendance were for live music (up from 39% in 2005 to 51% in 2010), art / craft galleries and exhibitions (up from 26% to 39%), plays (up from 27% to 32% in 2010) and musicals (30% in 2010 compared with 23% five years earlier). Other art forms showed some increase in attendances or at least remained constant.

Those art activities which attracted the highest participatory levels in 2010 were visual arts & crafts (18%), music of any kind (15%) and dance of any kind (13%), as can be seen in the following table.

Table 17:   Comparison of participation once a year or more by art form, 2005 and 2010 (Wales)

Art form

2005

2010

Participated in any art form

20%

39%

Visual arts & crafts

10%

18%

Music of any kind

9%

15%

Dance of any kind

5%

13%

Creative writing

4%

7%

Film & video making

3%

8%

Drama / theatrical activity

3%

3%

Sources:    Arts in Wales, Attendance, Participation and Attitudes, Report of Survey Findings, Arts Council Wales 2005; Arts in Wales 2010: Attitudes, attendance and participation, Arts Council of Wales, 2010.
Base:         2005 (6 851), 2010 (7 083).

Females were more likely to attend and participate more than males, though the differences were not so marked. Members of Black and minority ethnic populations had broadly similar levels of attendance as the rest of the Welsh population, but were more likely to participate in one or more art forms, especially carnival, street arts and live music (but nor folk or traditional music and jazz). People who spoke Welsh were a little more likely to attend arts events at least once a year (89%) compared with non-Welsh speakers (85%), and a lot more likely to have participated in one or more arts activity (45% compared with 36%).

For more information: http://www.artswales.org.uk/

Northern Ireland

The Arts Council of Northern Ireland report Arts and Culture in Northern Ireland 2007, based on the general population survey of the same year, was the second major study on the attendance, participation and attitudes towards arts and culture, after the Arts and Culture in Northern Ireland Baseline Study of 2004. The survey was carried out amongst 1 211 adults aged 16 and over. The report revealed that: 76% of adults attended at least one arts or cultural event in 2006, an increase of 3% since 2004; the proportion of women attending an arts and cultural event was 78%, an increase of 4% compared to 2004, while attendance levels of men stayed constant at 72%; a "social event" was the most popular reason for attending an event (33%), followed by "like going to that event" (29%) and "wanted to see a performer" (22%); individuals reported improvements in the personal attributes of "creativity" (53%) and self-confidence (50%) as a consequence of participating in an arts activity, with an overall increase in recognition of the benefits associated with participation in the arts compared to the 2004 survey.

Other findings were:

  • 22% of the general population had taken part in an arts related activity within the previous 12 months. "Singing or playing a musical instrument" was the most popular pursuit (7%), with young women participating most often;
  • 96% of respondents agreed that school children should have the opportunity to learn to play a musical instrument or participate in other arts activities;
  • 84% of respondents agreed that arts and cultural activities help to bring visitors and tourists to Northern Ireland; and
  • 78% of respondents agreed that arts from different cultures contribute a lot to society

Source: Arts and Culture in Northern Ireland 2007, findings from the general population survey, Arts Council of Northern Ireland (2007). To download the report, please go to:

http://www.artscouncil-ni.org/news/2007/files/ArtsandCultureinNorthernIreland2007.pdf

A report form Audiences Northern Ireland published in 2010, indicated that although only 17% of households in Northern Ireland booked tickets for arts events in 2009, this represented more than one million tickets sold. The report also suggests that 29% of those households has incomes of less than GBP 13 500 per annum. The same study said that more than GBP 16 million was contributed by the arts to the Northern Ireland economy in 2009, an increase of 11% over 2008 (http://www.audiencesni.com).

Cinema admissions in the UK

Cinema admissions in 2008 were 164.2 million, 1.1% up on 2007. British films accounted for 31% of the tickets sold in the UK, up from 29% in 2007. Five of the top 20 films at the UK box office in 2008 were British, led by Mamma Mia!, which earned more than GBP 69 million to become the highest grossing film of all time at the UK box office. The other top British films were Quantum of Solace (GBP 51 million), The Dark Knight (GBP 49 million), Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian (GBP 12 million) and Sweeney Todd (GBP 11 million). The top 20 performing UK films grossed GBP 266 million at the box office, a record achievement and GBP 22 million more than in 2007. UK films topped the weekend box office charts for 16 weeks in 2008.

Despite the onset of the "credit crunch" in late 2008, cinema-going has remained one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the UK, with an increase in both box office and admissions. Box office receipts totalled GBP 850 million, a rise of 3.5% on 2007s GBP 821 million and a 50% increase since the UK Film Council was created in 2000. In addition, audiences for film on DVD and television also remained strong. The average British viewer watched 63 films on television over the year.

In terms of film production, the UK Film Council's research indicates a healthy return of inward investment to UK studios in 2009, giving the UK its best first half production figures since 2004. The total UK spend value in the first six months of 2009 was GBP 535.1 million, compared with GBP 363 million for the same period in 2008. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1, Clash of the Titans and Gulliver's Travels accounted for a huge share of the production spend in the UK.

The UK has also seen an increase in the number of UK domestic productions going into production with 33 films over the first six months of 2009.

Table 18:   Cinema Admission in UK by TV region, in million, in %, 2008

Region

Admissions

in %

London

39.8

24.2

Midlands

23.2

14.1

Lancashire

18.3

11.2

Southern England

15.3

9.3

Yorkshire

13.6

8.3

Central Scotland

12.0

7.3

East of England

10.9

6.6

Wales & West

10.8

6.6

North East England

6.2

3.8

Northern Ireland

5.4

3.3

South West England

3.9

2.4

Northern Scotland

3.4

2.1

Borders (Scotland)

1.3

0.8

Total

164.2

100.0

Source:      CAA / Nielsen EDI and published in the UK Film Council Statistical Yearbook 09.

The table below shows teenagers and young adults were the most frequent cinema-goers in 2008, a characteristic that has been visible in previous years.

Table 19:   Cinema Audience in UK by age group, in %, 2008

Cinema audiences by age group

Aged 7-14

Aged 15-24

Aged 25-34

Aged 35-44

Aged 45-54

Aged 55 +

Overall
%

Frequency of Cinema visits

Go to the cinema at least once per year (proportion of population 7+)

87

80

68

67

58

34

60

Go to the cinema at least once a month (proportion of population 7+)

31

41

22

16

11

6

18

Cinema audience

Top 20 films * (proportion of audience)

19

27

18

17

9

10

100

Top UK films (proportion of audience)

14

26

15

17

12

16

100

Total survey population aged 7+

11

14

15

17

13

30

100

Source:      CAA Film Monitor as published in in the UK Film Council Statistical Yearbook 09.
*                 Audience data were only available for 19 of the top 20 UK films released in 2008. Repeat visits are not included in the data.


Chapter published: 15-04-2011


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