8.3.4 Higher arts education and professional training
With respect to higher education, arts courses are offered within and outside of universities, as university qualifications or higher level arts education (see also chapter 8.3.2). Almost all of the students who take arts courses at university level studied arts at secondary school. In this respect, the fine arts degree is the only one in the Spanish university sector that has a specific secondary school qualification.
University studies are organised into undergraduate courses (bachelor's degrees) and postgraduate courses (master's degrees, postgraduate programmes, doctoral programmes, etc.). The qualifications that are obtained may be official and homologated, with official recognition in the entire Spanish state, or University-specific degrees, which are only recognised by the universities that issue them. The so-called "Bologna Process" that started in 2005 with pilot schemes in some areas and in both cycles is official since 2010 in undergraduate and postgraduate courses. In terms of fine arts courses, the Spanish universities offer degrees in fine arts, design and conservation and restoration.
Recently, the Ministry of Education has approved the Royal Decree 707/2011 that creates the specialty of Flamenco in the higher training cycle of Music, within the scheme of arts education. With this new specialty, the Ministry sought to ensure the preservation of an art traditionally linked to oral transmission.
According to the Cultural Statistics Yearbook 2014, the number of students enrolled in university education, diplomas or degrees related to the cultural professions amounted to 106 425 in the academic year 2012-2013, which represents a decrease of 2.9% over the previous academic year and 6.9% of university students.