5.1.10 Other areas of general legislation
One of the latest trends in cultural legislation relates to the growing attention being placed on the "protection of culture from criminals". This derives from the Constitution of 1978, which states (Article46) that, "Offences committed against this [historic, cultural and artistic] heritage shall be punished under criminal law". Spain's Criminal Code, approved in 1995, regulates against crimes committed to the nation's cultural heritage (Articles321 to 324) as well as violations to the Intellectual Property Act (Articles270 to 272). It also stipulates that any wanton destruction or cause of destruction of property of social or cultural value to the community is considered a crime (Article289).
Recently, the new Act 14/2011 of Science has recognised the central role of institutions of the current Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport in the dissemination of science. This consideration allows them to participate in research projects funded by state funds, which seek to promote scientific activity. The Act also attributes a main role to these agents in "public science communication" and, therefore, in the dissemination of scientific knowledge, a mission that fits with the social vocation of these cultural institutions.