Morocco/ 6.2 Public cultural expenditure  

6.2.2 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

Culture is funded through:

  • The Ministry of Culture's budget
  • The National Cultural Activities Fund
  • The Moroccan Cinema Centre
  • Independent government cultural organisations
  • Local communities
  • The private sector
  • International Cooperation


At present, government funding of culture is achieved through:

  • The Ministry of Culture (in charge of the cultural sector)
  • The National Cultural Activities Fund
  • Independent cultural government organisations
  • The National Library
  • The Mohammad the Fifth National Theater
  • The National Radio & TV Corporation
  • The Moroccan Cinema Centre
  • Funding for macro-cultural projects
  • Local communities



The Ministry of Culture

The MoC is the major cultural funding authority in Morocco. It uses a diverse array of funding sources, most importantly: the government sets the MoC’s annual budget in line with the country's development policy. The MoC’s budget represents 0.33% of the national budget. The government seeks to increase this 1% by 2012 (see Table 6.1).



National Fund for Cultural Activities (FNAC)

This fund was created in 1983 by a fiscal law published in that year (official gazette, issue No. 3661, 31 December, 1982). The Fund consists of revenues generated predominantly through entrance fees to MoC-owned museums and historical and archaeological, rented historical sites, registration fees at MoC-supervised musical institutes, national and local government contributions, public or private donations offered by non-governmental organisations. Revenues are used to fund specific projects and activities in accordance with the legal instructions regulating this fund.



Independent Governmental Cultural Institutions

These independent institutions consist of public organisations subject to state mandate and financial control. These institutions include:


a. The National Library of the Kingdom of Morocco

The National Library was founded in 1926 as the “public treasury”. Under law 67.99 (2003; official gazette issue no. 5171L, 22 December, 2003) it came under direct MoC supervision. A new main building was created in 2008, costing about MD 300 million (€26.7 million). It was funded by the Al-Hasan II Fund for Economic & Social Development and the MoC. The new national library premises were built on a 20.8 km
2 plot of land.


The Library's budget comes from state funding, public or private agencies' donations, international support, funds collected in return for offered services, and endowments. The budget goes towards library operation and equipment.


By the year 2013, the funds allocated by the Ministry of Culture National Library are 33,000,000 dirhams, distributed as follows:

  • Management expenses: 14,750,000 Dirhams
  • Investment expenditure: 47,750,000 Dirhams

The state allocated MD 45.5 million annually for the National Library in 2007 and 2008, and an additional MD 38 million in 2012. The library successfully mobilised MD 6.5 million from the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID) and MD 2 million from the Moroccan Farmers Union (MAMDA).


b. Mohammad V National Theatre

This theatre was founded in 1973 (official gazette issue no. 3151, 21 March, 1973) and is under direct supervision of the MoC. The MoC provides the theatre with annual financial support (MD 14.5 million in 2009 and MD 15 million in 2012). The theatre also generates its own revenues, estimated at about MD 20.9 million (see table 6.7).


In 2013, the allocation of funds by the Ministry of Culture for “Mohamed V” Theatre reached 15,600,000 dirhams, distributed as follows:

  • Management expenses: 15,600,000 dirhams
  • Investment expenditure: 0.00 dirhams, wherein there was no opportunity for investment.


The agenda of the last meeting of the council Board on 4 April, 2014, can be summarised as follows:

  • A study of 2013 records and financial reports.
  • Budget approval for the agenda of 2014
  • The institution strategy for 2014-2017.


During this meeting, there was agreement on:

  • Preparation of the Enterprise Users Act.
  • Expanding the debate on the law governing the enterprise.
  • Including the documentation centre within the institution.
  • Putting together a standard operating procedure to benefit from the use of the courtroom.
  • The announcement of support for creative people with institutions available and support mechanisms through open bids with strict deadlines.
  • Establishing an enterprise Treasury.
  • Contributing to the restructuring of regional teams.



c. Moroccan Archives Foundation

The Moroccan Archives Foundation was founded under dahir no. 1.07.167, issued on 30 November, 2007, by implementation of Law No. 69.99. It collects and preserves archives produced by different public departments and administrations, in cooperation with all parties involved in this field. Its work is supported by prime ministerial decree no. 11/2011, which called on public institutions to cooperate with the foundation in order to promote the national archives, as an essential pillar of the modern state. 


In 2012, the Ministry of Finance allocated MD 2.6 million to support human resources and develop office and structural equipment. The MoC set aside MD 2 million from its own budget for this foundation. 


By 2013, the Ministry of Culture allocated funds for the Moroccan Archives Foundation of 8,000,000 dirhams, distributed as follows:

  • Management expenses: 6,000,000 dirhams
  • Investment expenditure: 2,000,000 dirhams



Al-Manahel Printing House

The printing house has been an independently-operating public authority since January 2001. It was created in accordance with authorisation 1.00.351, dated 26 December, 2000, and 2001 financial law 55.00. Annual revenues of Al-Manahel Printing House reached MD 2 million between 2003 and early 2009.


Within the context of this production unit's programs, aimed at promoting publishing in Morocco, in 2012 Al-Manahel Publishing House will publish 30 books. The MoC allocated this publishing house MD 2.3 million from the 2012 procedural and processing budget.


In 2013 allocated funds were in the amount of 5,300,000 dirhams, distributed as follows:

  • Management expenses: 2,300,000 dirhams
  • Investment expenditure: 3,00,000 dirhams



d. Moroccan Cinematography Centre

The Moroccan Cinematography Centre was founded in 1944, and reorganised in 1977 (official gazette no. 3387, September 28, 1977). It is governed by the Ministry of Communications. The centre is responsible for regulating the cinematographic profession, especially professional authorisations, cinematographic organisations and the cinema performance system. A tax levied from movie theatres under decree no. 2.87.749, issued on 30 December, 1987 (official gazette no. 3922, 30 December, 1987), was created to benefit the centre. In 1987 an executive decree (decree no. 2.93.963, 16 June, 1994 ) was issued to determine revenue distribution from cinema-related taxes. The decree was later amended and finalised in 1994. According to the decree, tax revenue is distributed as such: 47% for movie production, 48.25% for cinema investment, and 4.75% for fund management. Fund distribution is to be carried out through a special committee.


The management of this institution was assigned on 2 October, 2014, to Mr Sarem Fassi Fihri, former director of the Chamber of Film Production, Director of the Moroccan Film Centre to succeed Mr Nour al-Din Al Sail.



e. The National Radio & TV Corporation

The Moroccan radio station was established in 1928. In 1966, it was transformed into an independent public corporation. In 2005, at the issuance of 2002 A-V law no. 03-77, it became the National Radio & TV Corporation (SNRT). Law 03-77 obliged all A-V sector employees to comply with law’s provisions.



Arab Maghreb News Agency

On 18 November,1959, the Arab Maghreb News Agency was launched by the King of Morocco at that time, Mohammed V.


The Agency has been formed as a joint stock company by the King of Morocco Mohammad the Fifth, its objective to organise and benefit from a media service that responded to Moroccan press, and developing a news service by all technical means for the distribution of news about North Africa and abroad.


In January, 1974, the Agency's legal status had changed to become a State Institution.


On 19 September, 1977, by virtue of al-Dahir Al-Sharif, it became by Law No. 235-75-1 a public institution with an identity and financial independence under a information sector government authority.


Arab Maghreb news agency is managed by an Administrative Council and an operations Committee. It is managed by a director, and assisted by a deputy general director and five directors as follows: Director of Information, Director of Modern Technology, Director of Commercial Affairs, Director of Administrative and Financial Affairs, and finally the Director of External Relations.

 

Moroccan Office for Rights of Authors

Moroccan Office for the Rights of Authors was a device developed by the State for creating and protecting copyright and neighbouring rights in Morocco, which is recognised under chapter 60 of law No. 2.00 of 15 February,2000, on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, it also has been changed and complemented under Law No. 34.05 of 14 February,2006, with a task of protecting Copyrights and Neighbouring Rights from exploitation. The latest was established under Decree No. 2.64.406 of 8 March, 1965, after the approval of the constitutional chamber of the Supreme Council on 27 February, 1965, and is under the guardianship of the Ministry of Communication. The MoC alone  undertake  the appeal and distribution of various rights of authors currently and in the future within the territory of the Kingdom of Morocco and also in the interests of the various foreign companies for authors, within the scope of the conventions.


Organisational structure of the of the Bureau: Public Administration: the Director General, the General Writer of the Section, Engagement, Documentation and Communication Section, Recovery and Distribution Section, Legal Section, Cultural Section, Account Section, Cell Information and Technology Section.


The Bureau is in the process of establishing of other sections such as the Department of International Relations and the Department for Fighting Against Imitation and Piracy.



The Higher Institute for Media and Communication

The Higher Institute for Information and Communication is one of the oldest media institutions, whose main interest is formation; and training and rehabilitation in media and communication professions in Morocco. In April, 1969, it was developed, under the name of Formation Centre for Journalists [Centre de Formation des Journalistes] (CFJ), in cooperation between the Frederick Newman German Institute and the Government of Morocco. The centre invited, in particular, staff from the Ministry of the News, and journalists from the Arab Maghreb news agency, with a view to their improvement in field of written press and the audio-visual.


In 1977, the Centre of Journalists formed and became a public institution affiliated with the Ministry of Information and was then named the Higher Institute for the Press (ISI), to form frameworks and competencies in the field of press and media, and to give university students  who joined it upon graduation, a university diploma which entitled them to enter various media institutions.


In 1989, the regular service section has been abandoned, and the institute opened its doors for university graduates, among staff and students, after the establishment of a higher tutorial section that gave postgraduate diplomas.


During 1996 it turned into the Higher Institute for Media and Communication, with a view to strengthening the formation of press occupations and opening up to professions of institutional communication, with a view to harmonising the formation of press information with the needs of the media market.


On 25 August 2011, the government approved on the draft decree for reorganisation of the Higher Institute for Media and Communication [Institut Superior de l’Information et de la Communication] (ISIC) with the aim of reforming the formation system within in the Institute. It would allow for adaptation with prerequisites of modernisation imposed due to the profound transformations, and accelerating variables which were taking place in the information and communication fields and professions, on local and international levels.



Major National Cultural Projects

National Library of the Kingdom of Morocco

See paragraph (a) above.


National Contemporary Arts Museum

This significant project was built on 6.8 km2 in the city of Rabat. It was allocated MD 73.4 million and funded by the MoC and the Al-Hasan II Fund for Economic and Social Development. The museum would consist of different spaces, including both exhibition and artists' sections. Works started in August 2007 and the inauguration took place on 7 October, 2014, in which the museum was named the Mohammed VI Museum, for Modern and Contemporary Art. Its achievement required an Investment equivalent to 200 million dirhams, and it is the first museum in the kingdom entirely dedicated to modern and contemporary art and responding to international standards for museums.


This masterpiece was built on three-story building, including in particular, a hall for seminars, and exhibition spaces named after senior Moroccan artists ( such as Al-Shoaibiya Talal, Hajji Gilali Gharabawi, Mariam Meziane, Ahmad Al-Sharkawi, Farid Blkahyah, Hassan Alklawa, Andre Baz, and Mohammad al-Qassimi), and a pedagogical workshop, restoration laboratory for carvings, a library, honorary hall, management area, canteen, nursing hall, and a car park.


The Mohammed VI Museum for Modern and Contemporary Art, which seeks to cover the development of Moroccan creativity in visual and fine arts from the beginning of the twentieth century until to today, will undertake the task of contributing to the introduction of contemporary and modern art, through to its preservation and promotion among large audiences, both Moroccan and international.


The museum will also support youth creativity and innovation, find new frameworks for encouraging creative innovation, support scientific research in the artistic field, and develop knowledge tools concerned with the history of Moroccan art. This is what makes it a real space for innovation and education through cultural, creative, serious projects that will develop conditions of production, and promote access to culture, especially among emerging artist circles.



The Higher Institute for Music & Choreographic Arts

The Institute also lies in Rabat, near the Mohammad V Theatre. It is 17,000 m2 in total, and cost MD 60.4 million. It was financed through partnership with the Deposit and Management Fund. The institute is intended to support artistic education in Morocco and train musicians and choreographers in accordance with international standards. Due to the many delays, provision was made for a $22.5 million  increase to the budget in 2013. It is expected to be opened in 2015.



Local Communities

At both regional and local levels, local communities play a pivotal role in funding cultural projects. Many partnerships exist between local communities and the MoC, both to implement cultural activities and improve infrastructure. It is difficult to estimate the financial impact of local communities because the Ministry of the Interior privately maintains these records.


Public Cultural Expenditure Broken Down into Administrative Costs, Program Costs and Assets 

Due to the lack of data about how certain governmental funding is spent (for independent government institutions and the A-V sector, see Table 6.5), we limit our discussion to the MoC’s expenditures and the revenues of the National Fund for Cultural Activity in 2009.


The MoC’s budget is dived into two parts: the (administrative) operation budget and the (programme) investment budget. The latter consists of both performance and commitment allocations. Performance allocations are used for expenditures within the current year, whereas commitment allocations are calculated allocations for the following year. These allocations are deducted from the investment budget.


The National Fund for Cultural Activity budget is one of the major financing sources on which the MoC depends to implement its programming. The fund is subject to public budget management regulations in accordance with a precise action plan supervised and controlled by the Ministry of Finance.

Table 6.5: MoC Budget and National Fund for Cultural Activity Revenues (2009)

 

Percentage of Total Budget

Amount (in MD)

Admin, & Investment Operation

54.53

310,669,000

Operation budget

41.95

239,000,000

Investment budget

03.52

20,000,000

National Fund for Cultural Activity

 

Total 569,669,000

 

 

 

 


Chapter published: 05-05-2016


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