Morocco/ 3. Competence, decision-making and administration  

3.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

Moroccan cultural policy at the national level has always been, intentionally or unintentionally, an arena in which many government sectors are interrelated.  The sectors with direct interrelation to the Ministry of Culture are education (on all levels), the Ministry of Communications, the Ministry of Tourism and Handicrafts and the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs.


The education sector is involved in cultural affairs because of its authority over higher education. Many academic institutions, especially universities and advanced institutes, are active in the cultural field.


The Ministry of Telecommunication influences cultural development as a result of its authority over the Moroccan Cinematography Centre (Decision 1/77/230, dated 10 September, 1977, published in the official gazette, issue 3387, 28 September, 1977; and Decree 2/79/744 dated 31 December, 1979, published in the official gazette, issue 3504, 31 December, 1979).


The Ministry of Tourism and Handicrafts interfaces with the Ministry of Culture because the State Commission for Handicrafts includes a Heritage, Creativity and Development Preservation Directorate.


And the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs relate to cultural affairs because its structure comprises the Cultural and Social Activities Agency, affiliated with the Old Education Directorate.


The sectors with indirect involvement in cultural affairs are the First Ministry, the financial and economic sector (because it formulates the ministries' budgets), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (because it endorses all international agreements) and the Ministry of Interior (because it is the reference authority for local communities).


The Constitution of 2011 led to new constitutional institutions emerging such as the “Economic, Social and Environmental Council", an independent body started on 21 February, 2011. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, in accordance with the provisions of chapter ninety six of the Constitution was to consult with the Government and the House of Representatives and the Council of Advisers.


For this purpose, it was entrusted to provide consultancy on the general social and economic trends regionally, nationally, and internationally, and to make suggestions in various fields related to economics and social activities, and cultural sustainable development. They were required to  facilitate and strengthen consultation and cooperation and dialogue between parties, contribute to the economic and social development of a social charter, arrange for the preparation of studies and research, and have a progressive vision for economics, and the social and environmental fields.


In 2012, the Council was consulted on the subject of "culturally progressive integration of young people", in order to determine the direction of major new public policy in the areas of culture and youth. It was contracted to decide on an extensive national basis for these issues. The General Assembly approved of the Economic and Social Council during its second session on 10 February 2012 and unanimously adopted the report, which was the result of an objective diagnosis. Experts revealed in the Economic and Social Council the weakness of public investment in the fields of culture which was represented by the prevalence of negative or at times narrow adaptations, which were supposed to recognise cultural diversity and new awareness of the importance of cultural public policies, roles in the integration of young people in public life, and in national cohesion.


The cultural situation in Morocco
In the cultural sphere of Morocco, there is a considerable variance between modernisation and reconditioning of institutions and infrastructure. Efforts were intended to strengthen culture and accompany this with modern education, starting with children and families. Extending family involvement in the public sphere in a form of civil and ethical behaviour, was intened to start a cultural rise that would stimulate recognition and tolerance.


Morocco needs to review and rehabilitate culture to make it among the central dimensions of all public policies. To this end, the report says it must:

Provide the conditions for institutional improvements, material, political, cultural, technological, so as to change the situation of exclusion and to promote  what can be generated from factors of integration.


The Economic and Social Council proposed a number of recommendations for the advancement of cultural work including:

 

  • Following horizontal and contractual approaches for generating public policies concerned with youth on a participatory basis, to overcome all forms of imbalance and failure due to sectorial policies in education, culture, communication, and the youth domain by developing a National Charter for maintenance of cultural heritage. It should definine the responsibilities of each party in its protection and consideration. It should consider the specialist interests of young people to encourage them, and should give consideration on how best to serve the various regions of the kingdom with fairness and balance.

  • Renewing and developing public work in fields of culture and arts, by building innovative relationships between culture & youth and development in regional and local circuits, through participatory methods in framing and organisation among all interveners, and taking into account the cultural and linguistic characteristics of various contacts in all national territories.

  • Making school and education constitute a crucial lift in cultural integration, which requires among other things, setting a map between the cultural and linguistic components of Morocco, and taking care of regional policies, and making school an educational and institutional framework for strengthening national cohesion;  using legal rights to culture a way to reintegration; developing and encouraging creative tendencies in learners and teaching faculties, and facilitate conditions to absorb education in cultural criticism, and participation in its production.

  • Promoting dynamic education through peer learning among young people (Education par Les pairs) across different associated groups, political, economic, social and cultural, alongside the establishment of spaces for free discussion between young people, and between themselves and various generations.

  • The restructuring of culture, to respond to the requirements of all elements of the national cultural project, to be listed in the  context of an institutional landscape that addresses young people of all segments of society as much as they are interested;

  • Rationalising organisation of festivals of various types, and avoid dealing with them on a temporary and seasonal basis, by leveraging cultural work in a sustainable manner at local and regional levels;

  • Diversifying funding sources as the board experts advise, by building partnerships between public authorities, private sector associations, and cultural and youth groups, by establishing an institutional framework in the form of the National Fund for Culture and Youth.

  • Adopting a clear strategy to develop a national digital cultural proposal, primarily based on encouraging investment in digital culture, by facilitating benefit criteria for investors in this area and encouraging innovation in modern technologies, especially in software development, start-ups and for the Public Service Fund(Fonds du service universel). Also  development of digital thematic sites that allow for textual, and audio-visual content which complements  school and university knowledge; and development of digitalisation for museums to introduce young people to their history, and other relevant matters as an interactive network on the Internet[1].

 



Local Level

National sectors influence regional decisions through their decentralised agencies’ coordination with the regional Directorates of Culture (see table below).

 

Public Institutions with Direct Intervention in Cultural Affairs

 

 

Managing local cultural affairs by partnering with local communities is a stipulated duty of decentralised agencies (Law 78/00 dated 3 October, 2002, published in the official gazette, issue 5058, November 2002).

These duties will be detailed in Chapter 7.


Culture-Promoting Institutions Level

Directorates of Culture are assigned to manage all culture–promoting facilities affiliated with the MoC, as well as those partnered with local communities, the private sector and institutions promoting international cooperation (culture houses, museums, music institutes and galleries; see Table).


Distribution of Cultural Institutions as Regions

 

Regions

Number of institutions

Total

% of total institutions

% of beneficiaries from total population

Culture houses

Libraries

Digital libraries

Museums

Theatres

Music institutes

Galleries

No 1

2

26

1

2

4

5

4

44

19,94

2,27

No 2

1

8

0

0

0

3

0

12

2,98

8,33

No 3

3

28

1

2

1

2

1

38

9,45

2,63

No 4

1

7

0

0

0

4

0

12

2,98

8,33

No 5

1

23

1

0

0

2

0

27

6,71

3,70

No 6

2

4

2

1

0

1

0

10

2,48

10,00

No 7

1

14

1

0

0

1

0

17

4,22

5,88

No 8

3

7

0

2

1

3

7

23

5,72

4,34

No 9

5

24

1

5

2

6

4

47

12,45

2,12

No 10

1

17

1

0

0

2

0

21

5,22

4,76

No 11

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

3

0,74

33,33

No 12

3

20

1

0

1

0

0

25

6,21

4,00

No 13

2

18

1

0

0

0

0

21

5,21

4,76

No 14

3

13

1

2

0

2

1

22

5,47

4,54

No 15

2

17

1

1

0

3

2

26

6,46

3,84

No 16

4

39

2

0

0

6

13

54

13,18

1,85

 
 


[1] From the Economic and Social Council


Chapter published: 05-05-2016


EN | ES