Finland/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation  

8.2.1 Trends and figures

There are at least five ways to measure and assess participation in cultural life: household expenditure resulting from the purchase of cultural goods and services, level of participation (how often people visit cultural and art institutions and events), pursuit of amateur activity (yes / no), domestic leisure time use, time used for listening to music, reading etc., and audiences / sales / box office figures in terms of how many visitors different cultural and art institutions attract. The problem is, that statistical information is lacking from 2009 onwards.

Household consumption of culture

Statistics Finland delineates from household consumption survey data two different subsets of cultural household expenditure. The wider is labelled "culture and leisure-time consumption" and the narrower labelled "culture and media consumption”. Household surveys on cultural spending include items such as books, newspapers and journals, PC- and media equipment, programmes and discs, games, schoolbooks, encyclopaedias, and photography services. The latest consumption figures from Statistics Finland date to 2012 (new release is upcoming in 2017).

Households' expectations on consumption possibilities have an effect on their consumption. According to the balance figures of the Statistics Finland Consumer Survey in 2012, expectations were still positive in 2012, but much more pessimistic than in 2006, which were affected by the general uncertainty of the economic situation in 2012. Despite the uncertainty, more money was used on transport and culture and recreation in 2012 than in 2006. The real growth of consumption expenditure was directed to these two categories in most socio-economic groups. Excluding unemployed households, more money was spent on communications in 2012 than in 2006.

Level of cultural participation

Table 22 presents some participation data. The intervals in time series are unequal because time use surveys are carried out irregularly. It seems, however, that during the last ten years visiting intensity has somewhat increased and "never visiting" has decreased more significantly. The factors causing these trends are most likely increased urbanisation and enhanced and diversified supply of festival and summer events.

Table 22:  Visits to concerts, cinema, theatre, opera, art exhibitions / museums in 1981, 1991, 1999 and 2009 in a sample of Finnish population 10-64+years of age

 

1981

35

.

27

38

100

1991

34

.

32

34

100

1999

37

63

.

.

100

2002

40

.

40

20

100

2009

50

.

41

9

100

Visited cinema

During last 12 moths

Not during last 12 months

Visited sometimes earlier

Visited never

Total

Visited concerts

 

During last 12 moths

Not during last 12 months

Visited sometimes earlier

Visited never

 

1991

48

52

.

.

100

1999

49

51

.

.

100

2002

51

.

46

3

100

2009

51

.

47

2

100

Visited theatre

During last 12 moths

Not during last 12 months

Visited sometimes earlier

Visited never

Total

 

1981

45

.

40

15

100

1991

37

.

47

16

100

1999

39

61

.

.

100

2002

36

.

49

14

100

2009

43

.

51

6

100

Visited opera

During last 12 moths

Not during last 12 months

Visited sometimes earlier

Visited never

Total

 

1981

6

.

22

72

100

1991

4

.

21

75

100

1999

7

93

.

.

100

2002

6

.

26

68

100

2009

6

.

31

63

100

Visited art exhib. / art museums

During last 12 moths

Not during last 12 months

Visited sometimes earlier

Visited never

Total

 

1981

37

.

33

29

100

1991

44

.

38

17

100

1999

35

65

.

.

100

2002

42

.

42

14

100

2009

43

.

46

10

100

Visited historical museum

During last 12 moths

Not during last 12 months

Visited sometimes earlier

Visited never

Total

 

1981

43

.

49

8

100

1991

43

.

47

10

100

1999

29

71

.

.

100

2002

33

.

50

11

100

2009

41

.

54

5

100

Source:    Finnish Official Statistics, Time use study, (net publication), ISSN=1799-5639. Helsinki: Statistics Finland: http://www.stat.fi/til/akay/tau.html.

During the last ten years visiting intensity has somewhat increased and "never visiting" has decreased more significantly. The factors causing these trends are most likely increased urbanisation and enhanced arts education.

Amateur pursuit of arts

Weak trends can also be observed in the case amateur activity (Table 23). The most distinct growth can be noticed in the case of writing, photography and video shooting. The increase in amateur authorship might be due to an increased number of small publishing houses where professional authors might find new commercial publication opportunities. New digital equipment, lowering of technology prices and the easy transmission of pictorial material through the Internet and mobile phones probably explains the increased interest in photography and video-making.

Table 23:  Amateur art and creative cultural activities in %, 1981, 1991, 1999 and 2009 in surveys of population 10-64 years of age *

Pursued activity

Plays a musical

instrument

Amateur singing

Pursues visual arts

Writes short stories, poems, novels , etc.

Acts in a theatre club or in an amateur theatre

Pursues dancing

Pursues photographing

Pursues video making

1981

20

7

13

8

2

9

-

-

1991

15

4

13

9

1

9

-

-

1999

14

6

14

13

2

8

18

6

2002

14

5

19

12

2

8

26

9

2009

14

7

14

13

2

6

27

9

Source:    Finnish Official Statistics, Time use study, (net publication), ISSN=1799-5639.Helsinki: Statistics Finland: http://www.stat.fi/til/akay/tau.html.
*              Yes / no response to question "Do you pursue xxx activity?"

Leisure time use of culture at home

Table 24 provides data on three main leisure time uses of culture at home. There has been a significant decline in the percentages for listening to the radio and reading in the 10 year period.

Table 24:  Daily use of time for cultural and media activities in 1979, 1987, 1999 and 2009 in survey of population 10-64 years of age

 

Daily time use in hours

and minutes

Share (%) of those who participated

the activity

1979

1987

1999

2009

1979

1987

1999

2009

Reading

0.48

0.49

0.42

0.36

78.3

77.4

65.8

55.5

Listening to the radio

0.08

0.10

0.04

0.03

17.8

20.1

10.5

6.7

Watching television

1.18

1.41

2.10

2.05

72.1

81.6

86.3

82.8

Source:    Finnish Official Statistics, time use-study, net publication, ISSN=1799-5639, Helsinki: Statistics Finland, http://www.stat.fi/til/akay/2009/02/akay_2009_02_2011-02-17_tau_001_fi.html.
Note:       The respondents of the survey monitored their predefined daily activities for a time span of two days.

Table 25 bears witness that leisure time use of the computer has substantially increased during the last ten years. The present use might be even higher because, according to an international comparative survey, 82% of the Finnish respondents of 16-75 years of age had used the Internet during the preceding three months. In this measure, Finland was among the seven top European countries.

Table 26 takes us closer to more specific cultural uses of the computer. The two most frequently adopted categories of "cultural use" of the Internet are online distribution of digital cultural products and communicating through social media. In the Table the most popular cultural uses are in italics.

Table 25:  Frequency of using computer in leisure time in 1999 and 2009, % of the survey respondents of 20-64 years of age

 

Daily

In several days of a week

Once, twice in a week

At least once  in a month

Once, twice a week

Never

Total

Year

1999

13

8

11

6

3

58

100

2009

44

16

13

4

2

21

100

 

Table 26:  Expressed purposes of Internet use in Finland as a percentage of Internet users, 2009

Internet used for:

%

E-mail sending / receiving

91

Banking

87

Retrieving information on goods and services

86

Reading net newspapers / magazines

77

Browsing travel and accommodation websites

68

Retrieving information on sickness, nutrition or health

68

Retrieving information from web sites of public authorities

55

Listening to internet radio / watching internet TV

47

Listening online or loading down music from the net pages

42

Reading blogs

41

Filling in official forms online

38

Retrieving information on education and training

38

Sending / reading instant messages

37

Internet shopping

37

Downloading software

34

Chatting or writing messages on discussion boards

33

Looking for a job or sending job applications

29

Using browser based news feedsfor reading new contents on  websites

22

Buying second hand goods at online auctions or flea markets

20

Availing of Internet for phone calls

17

Selling own possessions, goods or services e.g by auction

16

Studying by taking online courses

16

Playing online games

14

Subscribing net publications or news services

12

Video-conferencing

10

Downloading games

8

Using P2P file sharing for downloading film, music etc.

8

Establishing and maintaining a blog of one's  own

5

Source:    Finnish Official Statistics, time use-study, net publication, ISSN=1799-5639, Helsinki: Statistics Finland, http://www.stat.fi/til/akay/2009/02/akay_2009_02_2011-02-17_tau_001_fi.html

Audiences / Sales / box office figures

Tables 27-32 provide short time series of the supply and demand changes in performing arts, museums and in film production and book publishing. Because time intervals are irregular and the supply and demand measures rough, one cannot make any reliable observations about business fluctuations – especially as some of the tops and dips in performing arts and museums are due to opening of a new house and closing performances because of repairs. Still, one can propose an observation that may have relevance from the point of view of cultural policies. Despite the above mentioned irregularities the aggregate supply (performances) and demand (sold tickets) vary in performing arts and the museum sector rather little in observation time or, in other terms, the systems are immune to any "creative destruction". This stability is probably due to the formula-based public support system. In book publishing the digit publication seems to imbalance the system, although greater losses are caused by the end of "the Harry Potter effect". In the cinema sector we can notice some audience competition between foreign and domestic films, where domestic films are gaining ground. Also, in cinema the admissions have risen considerably from 2014 to 2015. One of the reasons might be the success of some domestic films (especially Luokkakokous/Reunion) in 2015, which drew large audiences. According to the Finnish Film Foundation, domestic films sold a new record amount of tickets (total of 2 600 000) in 2015. Domestic films are currently enjoying an upswing in Finland as the previous record was from as recently as 2012 when domestic films had a total of 2 357 000 cinema admissions. The market share of domestic films, one third of all admissions, is also one of the best in Europe.

The Film Foundation attributes this success to the revitalization of Finnish cinema network through digitalization and the diverse domestic film output, made possible through public funding.

Table 27:  Performances and ticket sales of the main theatres (The National Theatre and receivers of formula-based subsidy), 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010-2012

Year

Number of theatres

Performances by
own ensemble

Tickets sold

1991

54

11 871

2 290 000

1995

53

11 879

2 287 000

2000

49

12 133

2 206 000

2005

47

11 368

2 154 000

2010

48

11 095

2 187 000

2011

47

11 625

2 249 000

2012

47

11 244

2 107 000

Source: Statistics Finland, Kulttuuritilastot / Cultural Statistics 2013, 86.

Table 28:  Professionally managed museums (administrative units*) and their visitors in 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010-2015

Year

Museums

Visitors

1993

125

3 600 000

1995

134

3 995 000

2000

155

4 881 000

2005

165

4 340 000

2010

158

4 869 000

2011

156

4 985 417

2012

154

5 254 171

2013

154

5 451 635

2014

152

5 445 468

2015

150

5 605 374

Source:    http://www.museotilasto.fi, Statistics Finland, Kulttuuritilastot / Cultural Statistics 2013, 45; Statistics Finland, Kulttuuritilastot / Cultural Statistics 2001, 136. 
*              One unit can administer several museum sites.

Table 29:  Major symphony orchestras*: concerts and audience in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010-2013

Year

Number of orchestras

Symphony concerts and other performances*

Number of performances

Visits

1990

30

1 565

684 075

1995

27

1 596

714 063

2000

27

1 456

775 726

2005

28

1 593

828 095

2010

28

1 789

667 373

2011

29

1 761

796 856

2012

29

1 835

851 439

2013

29

2022

830 465

Source:    Statistics Finland, Kulttuuritilastot / Cultural Statistics 2013, 113.
*              The performances of the National Opera are not included in the statistics.

Table 30:  Cinemas and their audiences in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2010-2015

 

1990

2000

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Number of screens

264

343

289

283

284

282

294

311

Films shown

762

409

367

408

324

337

346

333

Premieres

172

170

186

191

176

200

197

202

Finnish feature films released

14

9

23

30

36

36

34

37

Cinema admissions, millions

6.2

7.1

7.6

7.1

8.4

7.7

7.3

8.7

Admissions per capita

1.2

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.6

Share (%) of domestic film viewers

14

15

27

17

28

23

28

30

Box office receipts, in million EUR

30.6

46.6

66.0

65.0

78.8

74.5

71.8

89.9

Average ticket price in EUR

4.9

6.6

8.7

9.0

9.4

9.6

9.8

10.3

Source:    Finnish Film Foundation Facts and Figures 2015, 19; Statistics Finland, Cultural Statistics 2013, 130.

Table 31:  Book sales by genre in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 in million EUR

Genre

1995

2000

2005

2010

Fiction

37

36

40

42

Children's and books for young people

28

36

43

34

Non-fiction, total

75

102

113

96

Textbooks, total

63

76

90

88

Total

203

250

286

260

Source:    The Finnish Book Publishers' Association, http://tilastointi.kustantajat.fi/WebReport.aspx?DetailedReportsArea=True&language=ENG  

Table 32:  Retail net sale (without VAT) of printed and digital books, in thousand EUR, by main genre, 2009–2012

 

2009

2010

2011

2012

Total

%

Total

%

Total

%

Total

%

Fiction total

45 052

+5.4

41 728

-7.4

42 558

+2.0

41 161

-3.3

Printed books

44 161

+5.4

40 926

-7.3

41 422

+1.2

39 693

-4.2

Digital publications

890

+8.4

801

-10.0

1 136

+41.7

1 468

+29.3

Comics books total

12 639

-21.8

13 753

+8.8

11 701

-14.9

12 041

+2.9

Printed books

12 639

-21.8

13 753

+8.8

11 701

-14.9

12 041

+2.9

Digital publications

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Books for children and youth total

26 563

-20.0

34 476

+29.8

34 818

+1.0

33 563

-3.6

Printed books

26 182

-20.2

34 093

+30.2

34 289

+0.6

33 113

-3.4

Digital publications

381

-4.9

383

+0.5

528

+38.0

450

-14.8

Nonfiction, encyclopedias, total

96 491

-10.4

96 245

-0.3

98 633

+2.5

87 021

-11.8

Printed books

89 491

-11.7

88 486

-1.1

87 769

-0.8

75 335

-14.2

Digital publications

7 000

+10.6

7 759

+10.8

10 864

+40.0

11 685

+7.6

General literature total, out of which

181 184

-9.6

186 829

+3.1

187 805

+0.5

173 801

-7.5

Paperbacks

6 689

+41.3

7 235

+8.2

6 801

-6.0

7 891

+16.0

Printed books

172 888

-10.2

177 671

+2.8

175 235

-1.4

160 192

-8.6

Digital publications

8 295

+6.1

9 157

+10.4

12 569

+37.3

13 609

+8.3

Source:    The Finnish Book Publishers' Association, http://tilastointi.kustantajat.fi/PublicReporting/Yearly.aspx?language=ENG


Chapter published: 25-04-2017


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