Finland/ 8.1 Support to artists and other creative workers  

8.1.2 Special artists funds

The main legal provision for the direct public support to artistic creativity is the Act on State Artists' Grants. This law was enacted in 1969 and after numerous amendments was substantially altered in 2010. As Table 20 illustrates, this and some minor provisions are implemented by the arts council system, which provides the following forms of direct support:

Grants for individual artists:

The core scheme in this category is the working grants for artists in all art fields. The grants are for a kind of salaried period lasting from 6 months to five-years; there are also similar but longer-time (up to ten years) grants to highly merited artists. The art professorships were tenured posts of higher pay, received on the basis of artistic excellence. After the recent amendment of legislation in 2010, most salaries for artistic professors have been transferred to artist professor grants, included in "Artist grants" in the table. In contrast to individual grants, the state prizes are one-off recognitions honouring important artistic contributions.

The rest of the grant schemes in this category have been established as compensation for the loss of copyright income caused by free public use. They do not compensate individual artist's losses, but are really grant schemes based on competition and refereed decisions.

In the 2010 state budget, the amount of the monthly grant was specified to be 1 558.55 EUR. After a recent amendment to legislation, this sum also includes the same social security fee that regular income earners pay as tax-payers. It has been estimated that about 3% of Finnish artists are working as grantees at any given time.

Project and travel grants for individual artists or project groups:

Table 20 indicates that the project grant scheme covers all the main art forms and three special purposes, multiculturalism, international and Nordic cultural operation and artists in residence activities.

Grants for developing arts and culture of collective bodies:

These development grants can have three types of purpose. Firstly, their applicants / receivers can aim at developing high quality or avant-garde products (e.g art films, experimental music, new types of choreography); secondly, they may try to affirm the position of new art forms (media art, multidisciplinary art forms, circus as a form of art) and thirdly they may look for new creative impulses through transnational cultural cooperation (artist in residence programmes). The same functions can be found in R&D activities of science and technology.

The last category, regional arts councils, refers to the second part of the national arts council system. Its purpose is to alleviate regional inequalities in the whole system. Table 20 tells us that the grant schemes maintained by the regional arts councils are the same as those of the main system, but the funding (3.7 million EUR in 2015) is only about 10% of the total funding of the whole arts council system (36.3 million EUR in 2015).

There is also an extraordinary artist's pension system, formerly managed jointly by the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education and Culture and since 2011, managed by the Ministry of Education and Culture independently. It provides flat monthly payments to the recipients and, in addition to being a social security instrument, functions also as a long-term grant for senior artists still active in their creative work.

Table 20:  Support of the Finnish system of art councils to artistic activity, in EUR, 2015

Support for artistic activities

 

NATIONAL SUPPORT SCHEMES

2015

For artistic work (individuals)

15.4 million

Grants and subsidies to writers and translators*

2  651 300

Grants for illustrators and comic artists

73 000

Grants for visual artists

960 000

Grants for musicians and composers

115 000

Artist grants**

11 404 230

Artist professors (salaries) ***

-

State Prizes

219 000

Grants for individuals / working groups

3.3 million

Projects grants for different art forms ****

2 722 700

Travel and artist-in-residence-grants

411 900

Grants for art projects promoting multiculturalism

97 000

Project of the Central Arts Council, Visible Climate Chnage

34 800

Subsidies for communities

11.6 million

Special subsidies for different artforms *****

2 355 300

Operational subsidies for different artforms

7 929 000

Subsidies for promoting multiculturalism and combating racism

612 000

Artist-in-residence scheme

315 000

Subsidies for “1% of construction costs for art-projects”

380 000

TOTAL NATIONAL SUPPORT

30.3 million EUR

 

 

REGIONAL SUPPORT SCHEMES

 

Working grants for individuals

1 862 360

Project grants for individuals and working groups ******

794 680

Special subsidies for communities *******

1 037 090

Prizes

65 000

TOTAL REGIONAL SUPPORT

3.7 million EUR

SUPPORT FOR ARTISTIC ACTIVITIES, TOTAL

34.0 million EUR

 

 

Development and project activities

 

PROJECTS AND REGIONAL ARTISTS

 

Projects

608 676

Salaries of regional artists

1 555 180

Artist residences abroad

45 877

INFORMATION PRODUCTION AND COMMUNICATION

 

Information production

105 00

Centre’s other arts promotion

36 480

INFORMATION AND PROJECT ACTIVITIES TOTAL

2.3 million EUR

ARTS PROMOTION SUPPORT, TOTAL

36.3 million EUR

Source: Paula Karhunen, Taiteen edistämiskeskuksen tuki taiteen ja kulttuurin edistämiseen 2015 (Finnish language publication), http://www.taike.fi/documents/10921/1094274/Taiken+tuki+taiteen+edist%C3%A4miseen+2015.pdf/819f8180-8642-47a9-8ec8-cb0deddac7e1
*              Of which 10% for non-fiction writers.
**            Artist grants for all artforms. Includes also multi-year artist grants awarded in previous years.
***          Included in artist grants.
****         Incl. support for drama literature and quality support for photographic art.
*****      Incl. quality support for film productions.
******    Incl. project grants for children's culture.
*******  Incl. state subsidies for children's culture as well as subsidies for activities that promote the well-being benefits of culture.

Table 21 compares the support expenditures of the arts council system in 2009, 2012 and 2014 by art forms. Understandably literature and visual arts, have the top position in the art form rankings. Visual art gets as much as one third of the regional support and has, in 2014, been also the biggest receiver in the national level over literature. In the five-year period the allocation structure has remained rather stable with only minor losses or growth on the national level. More significantly, there has been changes in the contents of the category "other" (see footnote ** after Table), which is listed in the 2014 statistics as Multidisciplinary. In the regional level support multidisciplinary art forms is the fifth largest category in 2014. This change can be seen as a sign of increased art form diversity.

Table 21:  Grants, subsidies and awards by the national and regional art council systems by art form (%) in 2009, 2012 and 2014

 

National Arts Councils

Regional arts councils

Artform

2009

2012

2014

2009

2012

2014

Literature

22.7

19.3

18.3

7.4

10.7

12.4

Visual art

18.0

17.3

19.7

27.2

22.9

27.0

Music

14.3

13.6

13.0

 

14.0

15.7

14.4

Theatre

12.3

15.1

15.1

15.2

10.6

12.8

Cinema

7.7

7.4

6.9

3.5

4.6

3.5

Dance

7.1

7.3

7.3

6.4

5.1

5.5

Other***

7.2

2.2

-

11.5

15.2

-

Craft and design

5.0

5.6

4.1

8.2

7.5

4.6

Photography

5.3

5.1

4.5

5.0

3.4

3.8

Multidisciplinary

-

-

2.5

-

-

9.8

Architecture

2.5

2.0

2.3

1.4

0.9

0.3

Circus

-

2.7

2.7

-

1.2

2.0

Media art

-

1.7

1.8

-

1.9

2.3

Comics

-

-

0.9

-

-

1.5

Critics

-

-

0.5

-

-

0.4

Illustrations***

-

-

0.4

-

-

-

Total%

100.0

100.0

 

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total in million EUR

23.8

 

28.6

4.5

 

3.8

Source:    Paula Karhunen 2013, Support granted by the Arts Councils 2012. Arts Promotion Centre Finland; Paula Karhunen 2015, Taike support for arts promotion 2014. Arts Promotion Centre Finland (Taike) 2015.
**            In the 2009 statistics the category "other" contains media art, circus art, critics and unclassifiable recipients. Since 2011 the category "other" contains only unclassifiable recipients and critics, with media and circus art listed as their own art form categories. In case of Regional Arts Councils includes also activities that promote the well-being benefits of culture.
***            In regional support schemes illustration is not always categorised as its own support scheme; instead this support may be included in multidisciplinary art or the combined group illustration and comics.


Chapter published: 25-04-2017


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